divest himself. They are hoth good and serviceable in their places; but are often, in the hands of beginners, most sadly abused.
2. The first object of the beginner should be, to acquire a readiness in observing and forming simple lines, with their relation one to another, their direction, variation, beginning, and termination : also, to make a duplicate of any given line. Take, for example, a sheet of ruled letter or foolscap paper, and begin by tracing over the lines with a pen, from left to right, and from right to left —
Let your line be distinct and clear. Avoid a habit of feeling your way, as it were, by a number of uncertain touches —----——-—. Endeavor, at once, to express what you desire with firmness and decision---------.
3. The system of these early lessons, to those who find it difficult to attain precision of hand, is of so much importance, that it is strongly recommended, especially for schools; that it should be commenced as soon as a child is taught to hold a pen or slate-pencil. By it the instructor will find his pupils more rapidly acquire a good, hand in writing, as well as drawing; the eye, as well as the hand, thus being made progressively familiar with the observation and imitation of lines and forms. The drawing-master comes into our schools at too late a day. Every teacher can and may be one. A child knows its first letter by its form, calls its name, and remembers it, by that knowledge; and few there are, who can not make their letters on a slate, as soon as they know them in the book ; rudely, it is true, but still in a manner to be understood. And yet this first impulse of nature is too often disregarded ; the child is driven from that which might be to him a source of amusement as well as profit, and made, by the forced discipline of schools, to learn to read before he learns to write. " One thing at a time," may be a good adage for old heads, but childhood needs variety in its labors. Its mental exertions should be tempered by agreeable diversion, and, more especially, when that diversion can be made of lasting benefit. We may rely upon it, that the child, who loves his slate better than his book, will soon, by a judicious indulgence, learn to love them both together. The truant and the sullen prisoner to the school-bench would become the willing learner; and the early habits, thus acquired, of obsenation and appreciation of the beauty and wonder of creation, will lead to a healthful thirst for knowledge, the truest and surest incentive to the study of books.
4. In view of the importance of this early education in drawing, as well as to assist teachers in carrying out the system proposed, there have been prepared Drawing or Copy-Books, ruled and headed, on each page, with progressive examples, similar to those which will be given in the course of these rudimcntal instructions. Thus, with little or no additional labor, teachers may at once, although possessing, themselves, no knowledge of design, be capable of affording the means of instruction to their pupils, as well as supplying their own deficiency, in an important, and too long neglected, branch of popular education. These Copy-Books may be procured of the publisher, at a cost little beyond the price of an ordinary blank book.
5. Having acquired a considerable degree of accuracy in tracing the ruled faint line, as suggested (2), proceed to fix certain points along the line, at random, and then connect them together; moving your pen or pencil (the former is to be preferred) slowly and steadily, and not taking it from the paper until the line required is completed —
Repeat this, from right to left, and from left to right, as in the first instance. After some degree of precision is thus obtained, you may, without fixing the points, endeavor to draw the lines, of the length required, by the aid of the eye and hand alone ; and then, laying aside your ruled paper, see how nearly you can come to the examples given, on plain paper, on the slate or blackboard. Observe well, before you touch your paper, where the line is to begin, what direction it is to take, and where to terminate. When you can achieve this, with ease and accuracy, you have made a sure beginning; the importance of which will be felt and better appreciated hereafter, when, any amount of time and patience bestowed, in making yourself master of the principles and practice of these primary lessons, will not be regretted.
6. In your next effort, you have no longer to trace the ruled lines, but, to trust your eye and hand in drawing a line, as nearly as possible, in the middle :—
A difficulty will be felt, at first, in drawing continuous lines, of great length; as you will find your hand liable to get the start of your observation, and stray from its proper direction They should, therefore, at first, be short. Increase their length, as you gradually acquire facility and precision. When you find your pen going astray, as it is apt to do at first, leave off, and again seeking, by your eye, the true point to start from, make another effort; and thus, until you can draw a line extending the entire width of the page. Repeat the trial from right to left, as well as from left to right.
7. In this lesson, you have to keep two lines, besides the one you are drawing, under your observation at the same time. Simple as it may appear, it is one of much importance. You are already entering the broad field of Design, and are to consider yourself no longer a servile tracer. Here, let it be urged upon the pupil to avoid, in all cases, the pernicious habit of tracing. It is a tempting, but a dangerous expedient. No one can expect to attain proficiency in off-hand drawing, that relies upon it, even as a last resource. Early learn to trust and depend upon your eye and hand alone. They will serve you well and faithfully, when the clear pane of glass, the transparent paper, and the many other weak resources of weak hands, will fail.
8. In like manner as in former, proceed with the following examples: First, pointing off the divisions or spaces between the faint lines, and then connecting the points carefully; bestowing as much time and practice on each example as your progress or improvement may render necessary.
i). Observe that, in adjusting the points, marking the divisions of the space between thp
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