Function of Anatomy

Drawing Human Movement

The purpose of artistic anatomy is not to dissect and expose muscles, but to analyze and evaluate forms. The student must observe which forms are major, minor, or superficial which ones have significant visual impact and which ones are scarcely visible. Furthermore, he must evaluate head forms in general, studying the relations between bony skeletal forms, rigid cartilaginous forms, and flexible muscular forms. The artist studies anatomy not as an end in itself, but as a groundwork for the...

Drawing Human Head

Nose Ridge Draw

Almost spherical and about one inch in diameter, the eyeball lies within the deep cavity the orbit of the eye, cushioned in fatty tissue and situated partly to the front of the socket opening. On all sides of the socket rim, the eye is protected by great projecting structures of bone the high nasal bone to the inside the overhanging browr ridge the superciliary arch above and to the outside the protruding cheek mound the zygomatic bone below. The eye may be conceived as a partially exposed...

The Human Skull Drawings Muscles

Human Head Illustration

The ear is shell-shaped in form and general structure. Its outer contour is formed like a C, wider at the top and narrower at the base. In the center, it has a bowl-like depression, the concha, large enough to admit the curve of the thumb. The ear has four major forms the wide, outer encircling rim helix the smaller inside rim antihelix , which encloses the depressed bowl the lower fleshy base lobule the firm projection tragus which overhangs the opening to the ear canal. The inner rim...

Anatomy Major Muscle Masses

The muscles of the head and face divide into four general groups the muscles of the mouth the muscles of the eye and eye socket the muscles of the jaw the superficial muscles of the scalp and face. The most important muscles are those which produce the larger surface forms, the visually prominent masses. Primarily, these are the muscles of the mouth and jaw. The eye and socket muscles are secondary. The others are minor, since they are barely seen. masseter raises jaw and clenches teeth. scalp...

Girls Cartoon Lips Side View

Girls Mouth Cartoon

The substructure of the mouth is formed by the two great dental arches of the teeth the upper maxillary arch and the lower mandibular arch. Set together, both arches support the curving mouth barrel. From the base of the nose, the mouth bulge drops two thirds the distance from nose to chin. The outermost points of the dental curve align with the centers of the eye sockets. Overlying the arches of the upper and lower jaws is the broad, circular mouth muscle orbicularis oris , with its...

Forms of Skull

Cranium Three Quarters View

Examined in detail, the cranial mass takes on the appearance of a helmet, flattened at the sides, with a short, thick visor projecting in front. The helmet consists of five shapes fused together. On the frontal curve of the dome, we see the shell of the forehead frontal bone which rises to the mid-region of the crown. On top, we see the crown or vault of the dome parietal bone which partly covers the top, sides, and rear of the head. In back, we see the rear bulge occipital bone which encases...

Proportions and Measurements

Cheekbone Drawing Side View

The middle of the brow ridge, at its base, is the depressed bridge of the nose. This is the exact midpoint of the head. Here, at the midway line, the head is five eye-lengths wide. The brow ridge itself is four eye-lengths wide. Centrally located in the facial mass, the tapered wedge of the nose descends to a point midway between the bridge of the nose and the base of the chin. The width of the nose at its base is equal to the width of the eye. Distances from bridge to Base of nose is one eye...

Head Rotation

Head Line Drawing

To draw the head in a full front view or a direct side view is elementary. The simple relations of the cranial and facial masses, front and side, have been explained in Chapter 1. The difficulty occurs when the head rotates from a front view to a three-quarter view. A question arises about the back of the head. How much of the cranial bulge will be shown at the rear in relation to a given amount of turn Here is a simple solution. Step 1 Draw a full front view head shape in correct proportion....

Form Structures Of The Head

The form structures are the hard, bony, skeletal parts of the head or body. Or they are the tensile, firm, cartilaginous parts. These are the rigid framework or support structures of the body, upon which all the soft, limber, or supple tissues depend. Having established the basic form of the two great masses, we will look more closely at the form structures which give the brain case and the facial region their special qualities. We shall see how the upper mass becomes a skull and how the lower...

Cranial Mass

Outline Egg Shaped Head

The cranial mass is quite even and regular a simple, curved dome in general outline. The facial mass, on the other hand, is uneven and irregular a somewhat hard-cornered, triangular form. Cranial Mass, Three-Quarter Down View Cranial and Facial Masses, Th ree-Quarter View Seen from the side, the cranial mass curves upward from the mounded ridge of bone just above the rim of the eye socket. This is the superciliary arch or visor of the brow. Beginning at the frontal depression in the bridge of...

Drawing The Human Head

Human Head Side View

When you have mastered the procedure, try it on a series of heads showing various turns to left and right. In all views, note how each measure A-B equals measure C-D. Let us, for the sake of argument, raise an important question Is the foregoing method reliable for any stage in the rotation of the head It is. Here is the proof. Suppose that we wish to give the head its greatest possible rotation, from a front view to a full side view. First, we draw the front ovoid shape and divide it, as...

Three Quarter View

Head Drawing Humans

With these measurement lines in place, complete the shape of the skull and draw in the features. This is a good time to review the details of the secondary forms we studied in the preceding chapter. Check the horizontal line-up of the nose base, cheek bone, ear, and skull base. The edge of the mouth and chin should align with the center of the eye. The ear should attach on a horizontal line drawn from the outside corner of the eye. Step 4 On this curved line C-E-D , the new center of the face,...