Ilium Sacrum Ischium

Figure 2.26. Names of some parts of the pelvis

Draw Human Figures

Figure 2.26. Names of some parts of the pelvis

Femur

The femur has a ball joint at the hip, which is set at an angle. It runs from the outside to the center of the leg, making a skeleton seem more cross legged than an actual person.

When someone is standing up straight, the hip joint is located exactly vertically over the foot.

Kneecap

The kneecap is part of the tendons that stretch the leg. It lifts the tendons off the joint, and increases the leverage of the quadriceps. Since it is part of the tendons that connect to the shin, the kneecap will move down when bending the knee.

Tibia and fibula

These two bones are somewhat shorter than the femur.

Muscles

Tibia Fibula And Its Muscle Attachment
Figure 2.27. Muscles of the leg

The longest muscle in the body. It's not very strong, or clearly visible in itself, but it does define the inner edge of the quadriceps. It runs from the iliac crest, around the thigh, to a point behind the knee on the inside of the leg.

Drawing Human Sartorius
Figure 2.28. The sartorius

The main function of the gluteus is to give the buttocks a nice shape. (They also stretch the thigh, but that's of secondary importance.) It attaches to the back of the pelvis, the femur, and with a long fascia (connective tissue) to the tibia, just below the knee joint.

The part in the front that looks like a separate muscle, is indeed just that. Officially it's called the tensor fasciae latae, in case you want to look it up in another anatomy book.

• Quadriceps

Its name means "four heads", but only three of them are clearly visible. (The fourth one lies behind the middle head, the rectus femoris.) They stretch the knee, and the one head that is connected to the hip bone also helps in swinging the leg forward.

Rectus Femoris Back

Biceps femoris / hamstrings

The hamstrings are the group of four muscles in the back of the thigh that bend and rotate the knee. The muscle that is visible from the side is called the biceps femoris.

The other muscles from the group have the same function, and the tendons wedge together with the calf muscles, giving the inside of the knee its distinct shape:

Drawing Human Figure
Figure 2.30. Hamstrings and calf

• Triceps surae

The calf consists of two muscles, the gastrocnemius and the soleus. They both connect to the heel with the Achilles tendon. On the side of the knee, the superficial muscle connects to the femur above the knee, and the deeper muscle to the tibia.

In front and back views of the leg, you can see the calf flaring out near the top, and tapering off to the heel. The outside bump is usually located a bit higher than the inside one, although in some individuals it is almost symmetrical.

You won't see these muscles often. Sometimes you can see the tendon of the peroneus behind the ankle, or their attachments near the knee.

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Responses

  • awate
    What is the tibia and fibula bones?
    8 years ago
  • Stefanie
    How to draw human muscles?
    8 years ago
  • Murron
    How does a human use their muscles to move?
    7 years ago
  • luca
    What muscle connects to head of fibula?
    7 years ago
  • Amanuel Tesfalem
    Which muscle connects to ilium and tibia?
    3 years ago

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