The Female Head

Human Head Outline

There are several features that clearly distinguish the female head from the male. A man s head is usually more angular than a woman's, which is generally rounder. The bone structure, especially the frontal bone, is more pronounced in a mans face a woman's profile has softer features, an oval face, and a more bulbous forehead. Furthermore, a man's neck is robust, while a woman's is more delicate. Drawing from oval shapes is useful in establishing the main features of the female body, and is an...

The Bodys Axis

Human Body Axis

If you analyze the rear view of the torso, you will notice that the spine is describes the body's axis it is a line of symmetry from which the fundamental measurements of the body are established. Starting from this straight perpendicular, we have constructed a rear view of the torso, taking into account the following factors the distance between the shoulders and the spine should be equal, even if there is a slight incline the shoulder blades are the part of the back that stands out most, and...

Verifying Dimensions

Drawing freehand allows us to verify the precision of the drawing's proportions during the early sketching phases. When drawing freehand, the pencil should be held vertically with the arm extended before the figure, with the fingertip at one end and the thumb measuring at the other. This will help you confirm the proportional relationships of the real model. Froni these measurements we can draw by transferring those proportions onto the paper. Once the sketch is done, we once again place the,...

The Use of Hatching in a Study

Trees That Look Human Drawings

In a study, the sketch should be light, never overdone. It is necessary to find a blend of light and shadow that composes the figure with its essential elements. An excessive insistence on hatching is a problem that afflicts inexperienced artists, making their drawings confusing. If you work in graphite, it is sufficient to make a simple, homogeneous gray hatching if using charcoal, try darkening the shaded areas with a fingertip stained with charcoal. The hatching of a study should be minimal....

Line Control

Contour Drawing Body

Drawing contours is one of the most interesting exercises for an artist to practice, because it centers our attention on the form's limits and provides a focus that we can concentrate on regardless of details, tonal values, or possible modeling effects. The contour should he an automatic, gestural drawing, concerned primarily with the general character of the model and its expression rather than with an academic, perfectionist rendering. The contour should he an automatic, gestural drawing,...

Proportions

Human Drawing Proportions

In order to properly introduce the study of the human figure, let us set forth a few general guidelines that will allow us to draw any figure, using a system of proportions that can be adjusted to the view we have at any given moment. Proportion is the equilibrium of measurements that establish harmony among objects in this case, among the parts of the human body. Although today artistic license allows the drawing of figures with specific stylistic quirks, it will be easier for the novice to...

Synthesis of the Hand

Whenever you draw a hand, try to reduce the metacarpal area to a square unit from which the fingers extend in a radial pattern, or otherwise, start from the oval-based sketch discussed above.You can then continue your sketch of the hand by representing each of the fingers by three ovals, one for each of its segments. If you do so, it will be easier for you to draw a foreshortened hand.The position of the fingers is based on a sketch made up of a series of concentric arches that make it easier...

The Closed or Descriptive Drawing

Academicism

The finished or descriptive drawing presents the visible reality of the figure in a way that shows off the mastery and ability of the artist. The radicalization of the analytical function magnifies the finished effect of the drawing. The profile of a descriptive figure tends to be linear and closed, leaving 110 space for improvisation and subjectivity it is limited to the re-creation of visual experience. Descriptive drawings display a constant effort to forsake convention and give greater...

The Center of Gravity

A rational method of verifying the equilibrium of a nude's pose is to find its center of gravity. The center of gravity is usually found in the abdominal area for standing figures, or at the base of the spine for a nude viewed from the back. To check the stability of the figure, all one has to do is imagine that center of gravity and extend an imaginary vertical line from it if the line divides the area supporting one or both of the feet, the figure has a good equilibrium otherwise, the...

Figures

The shape of the human body depends a great deal on its structure, so when you try to draw a figure correctly, it is essential to understand your model's anatomical features and physical complexion, which are specific to their age and body type, in order to personalize the figure. The body of an elderly person is distinctly different from the proportions of an adult figure. The forehead is more ample as a result of hair loss, bags appear under the eyes, the skin is less taut than before, the...

Method

Human Figure Proportions

The best way to practice drawing the contour is to take a fine point pencil and start drawing the profile of a figure from a determinate point of view, without taking the pencil off the page. The line should be unbroken and continuous, without erasures, overlapping lines, or tremors.Your eyesight should follow the contour of the figure while the pencil works on the page, responding to each of your thoughts. When starting on the contour or inner silhouette of a new part of the body such as the...

Of The Figure

How Draw Human Body Step Step

In figure drawing the mastery of line is very important because, besides defining the concrete contours of volumes and creating a sense of direction or vital impulse in the drawing, it creates tensions and reactions the particular cadences of the figure. A knowledge of these dynamic tensions gives the figure a sense of contained motion and a rhythmic sensation that can be of great compositional and interpretive interest.Thus, figures appear to be described by a strange equilibrium dominated by...

The Vertical Lines of the Body

The first thing we must do before sketching is make a series of marks indicating the measurements to which we can refer throughout the entire sketching phase. One surefire way to begin your drawing is to find the line of the shoulders and the head. It is usually easier to draw from the top down. From there we will work downward through the body, drawing synthetic shapes on a standing surface, paying special attention to the vertical lines. We should look for directions and rhythms and see them...

Measurement Problems

Sometimes we will find that the figure does not precisely match the classical male, eight-and-a-half-head model.This is normal. It is only logical that real-life figures should be somewhat beneath classical measurements because, after all, classical laws deal in ideal proportions, not exact ones. What is most important is not whether the figure measures seven or eight heads, but that the distribution of the units be truly proportional. The classical proportions of a standing figure do not...

The Foreshortening

Perhaps the theory of foreshortening is most easily understood if the figure is enclosed in a box divided into equal units along the back. When the box is stretched out with the feet in the foreground, the units grow smaller as they recede from the viewer. Therefore, the general rule is to make the viewer see the parts of the figure closest to him as larger, or oversized almost exaggeratedly so. The most common completely foreshortened pose is the lying figure observed from above. From this...

Symmetry

Line Gravity Human Body

I11 a flat representation and in a frontal view, the human body shows a series of visible correspondences and symmetries that give the figure a great sense of compensated equilibrium. For this analysis, the most important line is the one that divides the human figure in two when viewed from the front. To achieve a well-balanced figure, it's important that the position of the legs be convincing and that the feet be firmly supported on the floor. If we take these factors into account in the...

Pictures Of The Human Body Nude

Human Body Naked

In a back view of a nude, the line created by the backbone can be used as an axis of symmetry, allowing us to balance the pose. In a back view of a nude, the line created by the backbone can be used as an axis of symmetry, allowing us to balance the pose. A symmetrical composition presents greater stability and balance. In artistic drawing, symmetry should not be perfect. The most common solution is to displace the direction of the head or one of the arms to avoid an eff ect of total symmetry....

The Contraposto

Contraposto is one of the most commonly drawn poses.The contraposto or ischiatic position is determined by and inclination of the torso in the opposite direction from the pelvis. It is so named because the ishion, a bone located in the upper pelvis, tilts to one side or the other depending on the position of the figure. Thus, the weight of the body rests on one leg while the other leg appears relaxed, in an attitude similar to a soldier at ease. This tilting motion of the hips is usually...

Basic Proportions

Drawing Body Child

One of the basic differences between a child's body and that of an adult is the head a child's head is much more voluminous compared to the rest of his body. This feature is attenuated as the body grows. In general, a newborn's height is only three times the size of his head. When the child is approximately one year old, the total length of his body is three and a half times the length of his head. Compared to the head and the torso, his legs are relatively short. At four years, the head is...

Analyzing the Countermold

Drawing Empty Spaces

The important thing isn't drawing an arm or the position of the legs, but rather taking up the form of these body parts by relating them abstractly to the space that surrounds them, looking for the negative forms, or countermold, of the figure. Therefore, in order to understand the forms of the model we must know how to identify the figure's countermold. We suggest a very simple exercise that consists of representing the human figure in the chosen pose by drawing the different chiaroscuro...

Pose

The standing figure generally presents fewer problems, because each part of the body can be clearly visualized. In cases where there is a problem with the body's proportions, we can always turn to the classical law of proportion. Representations of the human body are rarely symmetrical. Artists always try to draw the model when it is out of balance, making a motion with its arms, or in a determinate position. The frontal, symmetrical view is used only in handbooks for studying the body's...

Back V

Human Positions Drawing

If you analyze a frontal view of the torso you will find that this part of the body comprises the pectoral muscles, a set of thick, wide, pentagonal muscles set in pairs, which expand or contract when the arms are raised or lowered. Notice the distribution of volumes, the profile and expansion of the thorax, from the front and the back, and how the shoulders insert themselves into the thorax in different positions depending on the view.The neck gives the torso a great expressive quality, and...

Attitudes Of The Human Figure

The Human Figure Interesting Poses

As painters, we seek to use the motions of the body to show the motions of the soul Thus, it is crucial that painters have a perfect knowledge of the motions of the body and learn from nature in order to imitate, however difficult it may be, the multiple motions of the soul Le n Battista Alberti The Three Books of Painting, 1435. Cariant. Figure in Various Poses, 2002. Chalk and watercolor. There are no limits to the possibilities for creating interesting, striking poses. Capturing the energy...

Cross Sections

We are not always able to find standing figures, which lend themselves to the application of the law of proportion, so we must develop a set of rules that allows us to apply the unit system to figures that are seated or lying down. A practical method is to draw cross sections on the body that is, to draw 'horizontal contours onto the nude body to show the imaginary slices that correspond to the different measurements described by the law of proportion. In other words, we follow the same method...

OPEN am Closed Approaches

Sketching Tutorial

The contour of the figure is usually depicted fully in a closed drawing. All of the figure's anatomy, as well as the light that falls on the body, arc clearly defined, leaving little to the imagination of the viewer. Ink produces a uniform, lasting, worn-away line that proves very attractive when making suggestive, rough sketches of open figures. The closed figure is typified by a linear treatment of the figure's outline and a rich interior modeling. It is the closest to a classical or academic...

Solving Foreshortening Problems

Figure Drawing Foreshortening

We propose the following method as the most effective means for solving some particularly difficult problems, such as foreshortened figures. The only realistic solution to the problem of foreshortening is to draw the figure just as it is, not as one imagines it to be to see it as a geometric figure, observing the negative space surrounding it. Only dexterity and experience can help one to really see and correctly render a foreshortened limb. The application of a countermold is especially useful...

Fo Human Figur

Human Body Figure Drawing

In order to understand the figure, it is first necessary to understand its inner structure. We must observe and infer what is hidden underneath every pose. Synthesis, or reducing forms to their essential content, is a key factor in drawing correctly. In order to understand the figure, it is first necessary to understand its inner structure. We must observe and infer what is hidden underneath every pose. In any given era, learning to draw the human figure, whether nude or clothed, is perhaps the...

Applying the Law of Proportions

Body Proportion Measurements

Thanks to its measurements, the law of proportions is truly a useful tool for becoming familiar with and memorizing the distribution of the relative size of the parts of a figure in relation to the whole. Even if the proportions of a real figure do not match those of a classical model, there is still an adjusted correspondence between the division of the figure into units and the location of different anatomical Another system for applying the classical unit measurements is the overlaying of...

Drawing Negative Space

Often, the success of a pose lies in its negative space, in noticing and rendering the form of the background, the empty spaces surrounding the figure. If we draw the forms of these various spaces, we also end up drawing the figure, but with greater ease. We solve the problem of composition thus the spaces and the forms are united when we give equal importance to all the pieces of the puzzle within the margins that limit the format.

Drawing the Muscles

How Draw Runner

The muscles are the driving force of the body, putting the figure in action, in motion. Knowing how they move is a great help, because drawing figures in motion means putting visual memory into practice, even when the period of time is very brief. The interesting part of drawing things in motion is discovering, and learning how to depict, the essence of that movement the tense muscles of an athlete, the equilibrium of a ballerina, the speed of a runner. The different muscular tensions are...

Body Height

Guide Drawing The Human Body

The law of proportion for the human figure is based on a unit of measurement that corresponds precisely to the measurements of the head. According to the classical laws of proportion, the total height of the human body should be equal to seven and a half heads, or seven and a half units. Praxiteles s law established a new idealization of the human body according to this model, the total height of the human body must equal eight heads. In the early twentieth century, scientific analysis set the...

The Problem of the Lower Limbs

Manga Body Positions

The muscles m the lower limbs present a more complex form, but after a detailed analysis you will be able to recognize each of them. The lower limbs are made up of two essential parts the thigh, where the quadriceps and the sartorius muscle lies, and the leg itself, which consists of the bulk of the tibiae and the calves. The knee lies between these two parts. The knee is the joint that articulates both of these parts, and it should look rounded and prominent when it is drawn. Notice that if...

The Hands Dimensions

Realistic Female Hands Draw

If you take the total dimensions of an open hand, viewed from the back, with the palm and fingers extended, you will fmd that the distance between the wrist and knuckles is similar to the distance between the knuckles and the tip of the middle finger. This isn't the only fact that you can ascertain by simply opening up the palm of the hand. For instance, you will find that, with the fingers outstretched, the length of the index finger is equal to that of the ring finger, and that the tip of the...

The Open Drawing

In suggesting the form instead of explaining it completely, the open drawing requires a more poetic treatment, allowing the spectator to complete it in her own imagination. The open drawing, through its brevity and immediacy, can also be a medium for crystallizing ideas. It is accomplished by suggesting certain areas rather than completing them, subtracting a fragment of the drawing for the purpose of interesting the viewer or drawing her attention toward that point and allowing her imagination...

The Frontal View of a Figure

Body Contours Logo

To draw the nude from the front implies personalizing it, transforming it into a particular person rather than a generic model. Thus, this type of pose more closely resembles the idea of a portrait. Although the purpose may not be to make a portrait, the frontal view of a nude forces the artist to pay serious consideration to the face, and this means endowing it with expression. The figure in frontal view requires a more personalized treatment of the face and a sketchier rendition of the rest...

Descriptive Contours

Seated Ami Reclining

Descriptive lines are those whose only goal and function is to describe the profile of forms and their volumes.These lines are responsible for the stylization of the forms that we have previously discovered, and they reflect the artist's personal vision and stylistic essence. Descriptive contour develops an authentic creation and organization of anatomical form. When drawing modulated lines, not just any stroke will do. The five lines below left represent the most common strokes used by novice...

Obese Figures

Overweight Figure Drawing Models

There is a layer of fat between the muscles and the skin that fills in the gaps and softens the shape of the bones.The fat is barely visible in the body of an athletic person, because it adds only slightly to the person's girth but in an obese person, it can amount to as much as five or six inches, so it plays an essential role in shaping the volume and girth of the body. This layer of fat is not evenly distributed throughout the body. In men, it is generally concentrated in the chest,...

Head Face

Drawing the head and face is an intimidating prospect, because facial expressions change so quickly that capturing them precisely is a goal that only the most capable artist can attain. Hence, this section will devote no time to studying the action of facial features but will concentrate instead on the relationship of the head, considered as a volume, to the rest of the body. According to the law of proportion, the human head equals three and a half times the length of the forehead, so we will...

The Female Torso

Female Body Line Drawing

From both the front and the rear, the relief of the female torso is less conditioned by the muscular structure than the male torso in it, the transitions between volumes are smoother. Two of the distinguishing features of the female torso are the lower shoulders and more prominent hips. This contour can be easily represented by two triangles joined by their vertices.These triangles should then round out their profile to achieve the curved lines characteristic of the female anatomy. A good...

The Line of Action or Strength

For a figure to attain an impression of equilibrium and rhythm, it is necessary for it to have an internal line, an imaginary line that extends across the length of the figure, in order to articulate its rhythmic effect. This structural line, known as the line of action, should be the basis for any drawing of a pose or movement. Working with lines of force allows us to approach the internal rhythm without the figure becoming unbalanced. When constructing a pose, it is preferable to first...

SEATED ami Reclining

Reclining Figure Drawing

Seated or resting figures enjoy special favor among amateur artists, among other reasons because they present few compositional difficulties, and the body seldom presents excessive tensions because the muscular anatomy is relaxed. The greatest problem that we might encounter when drawing this kind of pose is foreshortening, but we will discuss this later on. The seated figure involves several different complications beyond those of the standing figure in it, the joints and members are not shown...

Human Child Body

Child Body Drawing

A baby's body features very rounded forms that show the folds of every joint. A child's head begins with two ovals, one for the upper skull, and another for the jaw and cheeks. As the child's body develops, the middle of the body descends. The middle of a baby's body is located at the navel, whereas the middle of a twelve-year-old's body is slightly above the pubic area. As the child's body develops, the middle of the body descends. The middle of a baby's body is located at the navel, whereas...

Figural Problems

Shading Drawings The Human Body

Drawing the human body requires the artist to gather all of her skills in working with real form and volume. As a subject, the human figure requires that we put into practice an entire set of representational skills as we arrange the limbs in a proportional relationship to the body it also requires the representation of volumes, articulations, planes, and simple forms and their combination into more complex ones. Once we can accurately render the human figure, it is safe to say that we can also...

Drawing Nude in Perspective

Human Figure Perspective Drawing

One of the greatest problems in drawing seated or reclining figures is foreshortening representing the human figure or one of its parts in perspective. The art of foreshortening consists of representing the human body from points of view at which its dimensions are diminished by perspective. But foreshortening is not the same as ordinary perspective there is no need for vanishing points or any of the methods employed in linear perspective. To render a foreshortened figure, it is necessary to...

Drawing Constructing The Body

Drawing The Human Body

We must measure the body standing and alive, concretely in nine parts with respect to its length. For able nature has shaped man in such a way that the face is found in the highest place, so that it be admired and offer the other parts of the body the principle of its We must measure the body standing and alive, concretely in nine parts with respect to its length. For able nature has shaped man in such a way that the face is found in the highest place, so that it be admired and offer the other...

Structuring the Whole from Simple Forms

Human Structure Basic Drawing

To sketch a geometrical model we begin by selecting a composite outline in other words, a simple geometric shape on which we can inscribe whatever pose the figure assumes. In this way, the work will present from the start a more satisfactory visual layout.The use of compositional outlines in sketching is an efficient method for arranging the subject and adequately breaking up the pictorial space, thus helping to organize the elements of the drawing so that the viewers attention, and the focal...

The Essence of Synthesis

Figure Made Geometrical Shapes

Once the compositional outline is complete, we add new geometric shapes to describe each part of the body an oval for the head, a rectangle for the thorax, cylinders for the arms, a trapezoid for the pelvis. Geometric shapes contain the essence of synthesis. The goal is to combine simple forms which establish the form as well as the proportions of the figure. All of these geometric figures are articulated amongst themselves by observing the straight lines which define the height of the...

Proportions and Background

Background Drawing

A figure's proportions should be harmonized with the dimensions of the background, to make sure that we adjust the figure to the background in a natural manner, and avoid having the margins of the paper cut off a part of the figure because we didn't check the measurements beforehand. If necessary, we can stain the blank page using a paper stump also called a tortillon or with our fingertips, to limit the space that the figure will occupy. These initial marks are guidelines that suggest the...

Great Disappointment

It is very likely that your first attempts at this type of drawing will prove a great disappointment. Don't be discouraged keep in mind that this method requires a great deal of practice. Once you have gained more experience, you will be able to vary your speed according to your reactions, and your line will be more firm and decisive. The important thing is the experience that you acquire while practicing this exercise. Once you master the ability to synthesize using this technique, you will be...

The Shape

Draw Model Human Body

Because the pelvis is connected to the head by the backbone, it is constitutes the body's axis. Several muscles of the torso, the thighs, and the legs meet at the pelvis, which serves as the main support point for this area of the body. One of the most important parts of the pelvis, and the one which most noticeably affects the outer appearance of the figure, is the iliac crest, which lines up with the hipbone. Don't forget to draw this bone, particularly in female figures and slimmer models....