Aerial perspective The effects of humidity and pollution on color and tone as objects recede spatially. Block in To roughly draw in the subject using big shapes.

Contrapposto First used by the Greeks, it is a pose where the weight of the whole figure is supported by one leg, which makes the hip move outward. The shoulder on the same side drops lower than the opposite shoulder.

Cross section The representation of the shape of an object when it's "sliced through" at a given point. Dynamism Movement or thrust of a pose.

Field of vision (or cone of vision) The area viewed that encompasses the sight of both eyes.

Foreshortening Creating the illusion of a part of the body either projecting forward or backward in space, or drawing a figure that is seen from a severe angle.

Gesture Pose or movement of a figure or model.

Guidelines Points or lines of reference.

Horizon line Where the earth seems to meet the sky, as determined by the eye level of the viewer. Linear perspective The diminishment in size of objects as they recede spatially. Line drawing Using only lines to create a drawing. Mapping Roughly sketching out the subject matter.

Modeling Using shading or line to produce a naturalistic representation of a subject.

One-point perspective The front of an object is parallel to your plane of vision, which means the object is directly facing you.

Overmodel To add too much information or exaggerate the tones in an area where it isn't necessary; this, in turn, exaggerates the effect of the light source and can flatten out the subject or alter the texture of the surface being rendered.

Peephole technique Looking through a tiny hole to isolate a part of the subject in order to judge a tonal value or color relationship.

Planar Lying in or related to a plane.

Planes (or facets) A flat or level surface on an object.

Plaster cast A replica of a sculpture, which is cast in plaster.

Portrait The artistic representation of an individual. Historically it can be a bust (head and shoulders), a three-quarter figure, or a full figure.

Still life (or setup) An arrangement of dead or inanimate objects.

Three-point perspective Using perspective to define parallel sides of an object and the height and depth of an object.

Thumbnail sketch A very small-scale rough sketch.

Tone The value of a shade of color, that is, its lightness or darkness.

Two-point perspective Using perspective to define two perpendicular sides of an object.

Vanishing point The height and position of your eye level on the horizon.

Vantage point (or viewer point) The position of the viewer's eye level.

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