Forward Head Posture Fix
Two figures I will use the light slanting across the table to create the higher values on the tiles behind. The woman feeding the child and the man in the red coat (dark against light) are the reverse of the four others who are light against dark. I will use a white bonnet for the woman feeding the child as it will help define here head position.
Regardless of where you work, you need to be aware of your posture. Working digitally is obviously different from working over a piece of paper, especially in how your body is positioned. So, you can't hunch over your work quite the same way you do with traditional tools.
Upright posture is maintained by the sacrospinalis muscles in the back, which bind the spine tightly to the pelvis and hold the torso erect, and by the gluteus maximus muscle of the buttock, which holds the trunk upright on the legs. As we noted in Chapter 2, strong ligaments at the front of the groin prevent backward articulation of the thigh, while others at the back of the knee prevent forward articulation of the knee joint. In a normal standing posture, the hip is slightly forward of the body's centre of gravity and the knee is slightly behind. These two joints are locked in opposition to each other, providing a perfect supporting structure.
In old age the flexor muscles tend to shorten. This causes the body, when it is in a normal standing posture, to have a general bowed' shape, with rounding of the shoulders as the upper back (the dorsal spine) increases its natural curvature and the neck thrusts the face forward. Even when the body is relaxed, the arms and legs remain slightly flexed.
The front end (or top) of the sternum is called the manubrium. It may be bony or predominantly cartilaginous (called the cariniform cartilage). The first pair of ribs articulates with it. In four legged animals, it is either pointed or flattened side to side, and may project forward beyond the articulation with the first ribs. In primates, the manubrium articulates with well developed clavicles it, as well as the rest of the sternum, is wide, flat, and faces forward. Some of the neck muscles descending from the head attach to the front (or top) of the manubrium (or its cartilage). This junction becomes the point at which the front profile of the neck meets the profile of the chest. Called the point of the chest, it remains fixed in space regardless of the position of the head and neck, as long as the trunk remains stationary. This point is approximately level with the point of the shoulder in horses. The depression found above the manubrium and between the descending muscles on either...
Continue to refine your sketch and carefully position the details of the face, i.e. the eyes, the nose, the mouth and the ears. Note that the subdivision of the face into three sections is just indicative. Try to find in each individual the specific relative proportions and stick to them to achieve a likeness. This stage is very important as it lays the ground for the subsequent development of the drawing. Also try to recognize and lightly sketch trie main anatomic structures (the subcutaneous bones, the surface muscles, etc). Here, for example, I have indicated the protruding cheekbones and front bone, the position of the orbicularis oris, masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Again, draw light strokes with an H pencil or, if you prefer an HB.
The muscles of the head are divided into two groups the muscles of facial expression, responsible for physiognomic expressions and the muscles of mastication, which move the jaw. They become stratified on the cranial bones whose external shape they follow pretty closely, as they are very thin. Also study the main neck muscles because, inevitably, they appear in nearly all portraits. STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
This is a large, flat bone that connects the clavicles and ribs at the front of the body, and serves as the anchor point for the pectoral muscle, and a few neck muscles. When you breathe in, this bone moves forward and upward. Sternocleidomastoideus Figure 2.4. Sternocleidomastoideus and trapezius
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