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When we go from line into tone we take a very large step, for tone is the effect of light on form. Although drawing need not carry all the subtlety of tone that painting does, still we must consider values as more or less related. It is better at first to light your subject strongly, or choose a subject that is more or less in simple light and shadow. Shadows are really shapes to draw, shapes that occur over the surface of the form, so that we must consider both, the shape of the form itself and the shape of the shadow on it. Therefore keep the lights and shadows as simple as possible. Hold the light down to one source to begin with. Later on, you may want to introduce some back lighting, but never have both lights shining on the same area. This creates a falsity of lighting, and therefore false-looking form, for form really exists only as light, halftone, and shadow define it. If the light were not there, we would see no form.

In very diffused lighting, we see form much the way we represent it in outline only. If light is coming from all directions the form flattens out, because form turning away from the light source is what makes halftone, shadow, and cast shadow. By cast shadow we mean that the shadow has continued to another plane like the wall, or down across the neck under the chin. Cast shadows have edges of their own, which depend on the direction from which the light is coming. The difference lies in the fact that in ordinary shadow the form has simply turned so far that the light can no longer reach it. On a round form there is halftone l>efore we reach the shadow, and the halftone merges with the shadow. On a square or angular form the shadow sharply follows the edge which aits off the light, or around which the light cannot reach. The nose casts a shadow in a bright light; the cheeks, l>eing rounder and more gradual as a curve, blend the shadow with the light.

This very blending of light into shadow may

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