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make the difference between a good drawing and a bad one. If the edge of the shadow is graduated or blended too much with the light, the drawing loses character; if it is not blended enough the drawing may become hard and brittle. A good way to judge is to ask yourself: Am I holding evidence of the plane or have I lost it? If you have softened the edge so much as to have lost the plane, the drawing is bound to take on a smooth, photographic look. For this reason, planes have to be established when you are drawing from a photograph, since they are not apparent in the photograph itself.

In drawing planes, we can do much to suggest the direction of the plane by the direction of line, without much change in values (see Plate 34). For this reason a drawing can be made to appear very solid, where a wash draw-ing or painting may lose much of the character. This is a principle which is used effectively in pen drawing, that of making the strokes follow the direction of the plane. It can be used in other mediums that are not areas of flat tone.

I hope the reader will give particular attention to Plate 33, since I consider this page one of the most important in the lx>ok. The drawings here encompass practically all the material offered up so far in this lxx)k. Here we have the plan of construction, the anatomy, the planes, and the finished rendering combined in a single pose of an individual head.

In addition to studying this page carefully, find some material of your own. See if you can render in separate drawings what you believe must be the correct proportions, anatomy, and planes of the particular head. You will learn more by doing this than by copying a hundred heads as they appear in your copy material. It will definitely point up anything lacking in your knowledge thus far. When you have, to your satisfaction, worked out the several stages, paste them on a sheet and hang them up in the place

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