PLATE 30. Analysis of facial markings
It is not difficult to memorize the size, shape, and placement of the muscles of the face. If you do this, you will thereafter always be able to identify the lines, humps, and bumps in the face. Older people are better than young ones as sources for this information, since the older one gets the more lines and wrinkles develop. We can learn to separate the small wrinkles from the facial lines. The small wrinkles are associated with the shrinkage of the flesh between the muscles, whereas the lines are associated with the edges of the muscles themselves. The small wrinkles of the flesh are seldom drawn or painted since they eventually make a network of wrinkles over the whole face. More important are the forms, and the large creases or lines between them. These are the long creases of the cheeks, those around the mouth, and those over and under the eyes. The muscles are quite pronounced in the male head. When we speak of a strong face, we are speaking mainly of muscle and bone structure.
Only in expressions with raised eyebrows need we worry about wrinkles in the forehead. We can safely leave out most of the winkles most of the time and concentrate mainly on the lines, the bones, and the soft forms of the flesh beneath the surface. It is a safe bet that the more wrinkles you eliminate, the better your drawing will be liked. Remember that wrinkles are never black lines on the actual face, but very delicate lines of shadow which can be seen only a few feet away. That is why we can so easily eliminate them and still get a likeness. The deeper creases are evident for some distance, as are the shadows of the planes of the head. Never draw a face as a map or network of wrinkles.
PLATE 31. Drawing faces of different ages
You can easily learn to age a face by adding the forms of the emaciating muscles and the creases that fall between them. The chccklxmes, the comers of the jaw, and the bone of the chin become more evident in the aging process. The cartilages of the nose and ears seem to get larger as we get older. The chief change takes place in the cheeks and around the eyes and mouth. The flesh sags at the sides of the chin and along the sides of the jaw. Pouches form under the eyes, and deeper lines at the corners of the eyes. The lips tend to get thinner and move inward, so that more of a straight line between the hps is produced. The lines develop from the corners of the mouth down around the sides of the chin. The flesh above the eyelids droops and the brows seem to drop inward toward the bridge of the nose. A few deeper lines develop across the forehead and between the brows. These can be subordinated, to avoid overemphasizing them. The hair, of course, thins out in varying degrees, so that the hairline moves up and back and there is considerable thinning of the hair at the top of the head. However, we draw the head from the same basic construction.
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