Some faces have this characteristic to a pronounced degree, while in other faces it is hardly evident. The difficulty is to make the folds appear natural and a part of the smile rather than to have them look like pouches under the eyes. These folds are easier to paint than to draw, because in painting they may be rendered in light values, but in a drawing we are usually using a black medium, and the folds get too black. The same is true of the wrinkles that show at the outer corners of the eyes in a smile. If these are too black, they look like crows feet. Many smiles are spoiled because the lines around the nostrils are too heavy and black, suggesting a sneer more than a smile, or making the face look as if it were smelling something unpleasant.
Another valuable hint about the smile is that it shows more of the upper teeth than of the lower ones. That means both a greater number of teeth, and more area of the teeth themselves. The corners of the lips are pulled away from the teeth, causing a hole or dark accent within the corners of the lips. The teeth should never run right into the comers as if they were pressed against the lips all the way around. The pull of the muscles stretches and flattens the lips, but the inward curve of the teeth is still there and becomes even more evident because of the shadows cast inwardly by the lips at the comers. There should be some toning down of the teeth as they go back. The two front upper teeth are the ones to highlight. It is better not to try to model the teeth too much, or to draw lines between them. This again is because almost any line may be too black. The lines between the teeth are really very subtle and delicate. Often the teeth should be suggested rather than drawn in detail-unless you are selling toothpaste. Anders Zorn was a master at painting teeth in a smile.
Plate 23 shows the mechanics of the mouth. At the top are the bones without the flesh. We must always remember that the upper jaw is
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