I do not see any materia! advantage to the artist in knowing the names of all the muscles and bones of the head, but it is of great importance to him to know where they are, where they attach, and what they do. It is important to know that some muscles are attached directly to bone at lx>th ends, while others arc attached to bone at one end and to other bands of muscles at the other. The former have the function of moving the bony structure. The latter move the flesh. Plate 20 shows the muscles and how they are connected.
The most important muscle of the head is the powerful muscle that closes the jaw. You feel it at the corner of the jaw. just below and in front of the ear. Circus acrobats have been known to dangle the weight of the whole body at the end of a rope by biting a bit of hard rubber attached to the rope end. The jaw is also attached to a muscle that spreads out over the side of the cranium. These two muscles give the power to crunch and grind food in the mouth.
A very marvelous mechanical principle functions in the eyes and mouth. Both arc slits in a circular sheet of muscle. If you took half of a hollow rubber ball and cut a slit in it, without stress on the rubber, the slit would close itself. Under tension you could easily pull the slit open. The dropping of the weight of the jaw opens the mouth. To open the mouth wide is a conscious effort. To keep the mouth closed really requires very little effort—a piece of knowledge that can be used to great advantage at times.
Very important are the little ribbon-like muscles which open the lips laterally, pulling at the corners of the mouth. These are the "smile muscles." They are the ones that puff the cheeks by contracting within the flesh. When they pull diagonally upward and a smile flashes, great things may happen, far beyond mere mechanics. Remember these as the "happy muscles." They attach at the cheekbones and run diago-
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