Head And Face

nally down the cheeks to the muscles around the lips.

Note the muscles which run down the side of the nose past the corncrs of the mouth to the chin. These are the "unhappy muscles." Being attached to the bone around the nose at one end and to the jaw at the other, they can pull the lips upward in a snarl or downward in a leer. Working from both ends, they expose the teeth the way an animal shows its fangs. These muscles are operating from both ends when you brush your teeth. They seem to pull downward when you are lifting a heavy weight, or in extreme muscular effort of the body, like running. They make round corners at the mouth, where in the smile the comers are pulled out and upward. Try to associate the happy and the unhappy muscles, for they are the basis of most facial expressions. The wrinkles at the corners of the eyes are simply caused by the flesh of the cheeks' buckling by the upward pull of the "happy muscles" below the chcckl>ones. The bulging of the cheeks also causes the crease or fold of flesh under the eyes in a smile. It is more pronounced in some faces than others. As the "happy muscles" pull at each side in the smile, the nostrils may flare a little and l>ccome more evident, which is one of the things that help to make a face smile.

The dimple or downward line occurring in the lower part of the smiling cheek is caused by the little open space l>ctwecn the "unhappy muscle" and the jaw muscle. In old age this depression Incomes very evident. In the young face it is a dimple.

The rest of the face muscles are simply what we may call "wrinkle muscles." There's one at the inside corner of the brows near the nose. This one lifts the corner of the eyebrow as in worry or in an expression of pleading. The "unhappy muscle" pulls down the inside comer of the brow in a frown. The two "wrinkle muscles"

DRAWING THE above the brows also wrinkle the forehead, since they are contracting beneath the flesh, but arc-also attached to the flesh.

There are two small "winkle muscles" at the

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