form. Through these planes we can interpret the true solidity as in no other way. It is better to learn tc turn the form in its true structure than to omit the turning entirely so it may appear flat and without form. Remember that in a drawing the planes may be stressed considerably more than they can be in a painting, since we are dealing with fewer conflicting values. Just now we are not concerned with values, or "shading," as it is often called by the layman. We simply want to know what planes will give the basic form the general shape of the face and head. In other words, we want to get out of the round into more blocky forms, for this blockincss gives much more character, especially to men's heads. Turn to Plate 9. I suggest that you study this page carefully in order to fix these planes in your memory. They are like chords from which you build music; they are basic, and almost any head can lx? built on them.
After you have memorized these planes, try tilting the head and incorporating the visible planes, as shown in Plate 10. From these planes you can go on to perspective, as demonstrated in Plate 11. When you have mastered the construction of the ball and planes of the face, learned to use correct spacing and construction lines, and have assembled the planes, you have come a long way toward good drawing of heads. You should now lx* able to spot many of the difficulties that arise, and make the corrections in your l>asic drawing. Many a portrait has l>ecn started, only for the artist to discover after days of work that the basic construction is at fault. Something must be moved—an eye. the nose, or the mouth—and a likeness or the desired expression simply refuses to come about A very good way of studying construction is to draw the construction lines on a clipping of someone else's picture of a head, so that you can see the exact placement of all parts. Once you understand the construction yourself, it becomes
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