and placement of the Ixmcs. Note how in these drawings you are aware of the construction all around the head. 1 personally try to get the feeling that these are not outlines, but the edges of solid forms that 1 could slide my hand around. Do you feel as if you could pick up these heads with your two hands and that you would find them just as solid in back as in front? That is what we arc working for just now.
Plate 7 shows the action of the head on its pivot point at the top of the spine and at the base of the skull. We must remember that this pivot is well inside the roundness of the neck and deep under the skull. It does not have a hinge action but a rotating action from a. point a little back ot the rent«-! line of the neck. So when the head is tipped backward the neck is squeezed and bulges somewhat, forming a crease at the base of the skull. When the head is tipped forward, the larynx or Adam's apple is dropped down and hides itself within the neck. In the lateral movements there is a strong play of the long muscles which attach to the skull behind the ears and down in front to the breastl>one between the collarbones. At the back arc the two strong muscles which attach to the base of the skull to pull the head backward. To get a head to sit properly on the neck requires some
\D AND HANDS
knowledge of anatomy, which is discussed later.
Some artists like to think of the head as being built of pieces which will fit together and fall into place to give the understructure of the head. See Plate 8. This is especially helpful in suggesting the third dimension, that of thickness. in your drawing. Much too often the factf is drawn as something flat. We must consider the roundness of the muzzle—the two jaws as they come together. Because it is lost in the fleshiness of the face, we may forget the shaq> curve of the teeth !>chind the lips. This is even more pronounced in animals, to which a sharp deep bite may make the difference Ixftween life and death. Think of the front teeth as choppers and the back teeth as grinders. The fangs, or what we call eyeteeth in human beings, are what an animal uses to hang on with, or to slash and tear. To impress upon yourself what the roundness of this area really is like, take a bite out of a piece of bread and study it. You will probably never draw lips flatly again. We must also rcmcmlxrr that the eyes are round, though most of the time we see them drawn flatly, like a slit in a piece of paper. The eyes, nose, mouth, and chin all have this three-dimensional quality, which cannot be sacrificed without losing the solidity of the whole head.
PLATE 3. The cross and the middle line determine the pose
It is most important to begin at once to practice setting up the ball and facial plane. Do not worry too much now about the features. This is simply construction, which you will probably use for the rest of your life. Establish the cross. Try to think of the construction all around the head, so that the jaws attach halfway around on each side. Remember that the eyes and cheekbones are below the brow line. The ears arc about parallel with the lines of the brows and that of the nose. The cross almost suggests the face below. With this approach we can start drawing the whole head in any pose.
PLATE 4. Establishing the middle line
If you have worked out the ball and plane and its divisions you will not have too much trouble in placing the features. However, you should realize that a feature will never fit on a head until it is placed correctly and in line with the construction lines of the whole head. Every artist must l>c prepared for a certain amount of struggle with construction, so do not allow yourself to get discouraged. Every head anyone draws depends on construction, just as much as every building, every car, every other three-dimensional object does. That is what the artist s job really is in learning how to construct things in three dimensions on a two-dimensional surfacc. We have to think of each thing we draw in its entirety and sec how its dimensions appear to us from our particular viewpoint. Representation in three dimensions calls for knowledge and study. But such knowledge is no more difficult than that required for any other field. No matter how great your talent, talent has to work with knowledge to do anything well. When the search for particular knowledge becomes pleasant as well, half the battle is won. Construction need not worn' you; it comes with practice.
PLATE 5. Simplified bone structure
At this point it will help a great deal in constructing the head to have a fairly clear idea of the lx>ne structure. Though we do not sec the bones in detail, we must think of them as the framework of the head. All the division points of the head are related to the bones, not to the flesh. The reason we chose the ball and plane as an approach now l>ccomcs apparent, for our approach is the skull itself, simplified and made understandable.
PLATE 6. The bony parts within the construction
Here we look at the bones more closely, realizing that, with the cxccption of the checks, all the flcsliai the hgad lies over bone and js influenottLh): the shape of thg bong. This simplifies our problem considerably, for except for the jaw the bones of the skull are all in a fixed position and move only as the whole head moves. Only the flesh around the eyes, the cheeks, and the mouth arc capable of separate movement.
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