The lips and jaw can hardly be drawn convincingly without an understanding of the muzzle and how it works. Beginners draw the mouth as if it lay on a flat plane. The curve of the teeth in the rounded jaw must be considered, and the fullness of the lips themselves must be felt.
«iss fixed in its relationship to the rest of the face, and all the movement takes place in the lower jaw. The curve of the upper teeth remains unchanged and is affected only by the viewpoint. The dropping of the lower jaw may add as much as two inches to the length of the face. When the upper and lower teeth are separated, be sure to compensate by dropping the chin proportionately. And, once again, always consider the roundness of the muzzle all around the lips.
Plate 24 gives you a real look at the eyes. We are too likely to think of the eye as something round (the iris) on something white (the eyeball). Until we analyze the structure we are not conscious of how much the lids arc affected by the roundness of the eyeball. The reason is that we see only a little more than a quarter of the eyeball between the lids. But the curve of the eyeball is very evident from corner to comer of the lids. An eye without lids is, of course, a gruesome sight, but we must make these lids seem to lie on the rounded surface. The lids operate almost exactly like the lips. Exccpt in the front view of the face the drawing of one eye is never an exact duplicate of the drawing of the other. When the iris of one eye is at the inner corner, that of the other is at the outer corner. There is a slight bulge of the lens of the eye which travels around under the upper lid. Think of the eyes as two balls working together on a stick. As you turn the stick you also turn the eyes. Think of the lids as the covers over the two balls, in principle like the drawing in the lower right-hand corner of Plate 24. Draw many eyes, first separately, then in pairs. Clip out some pictures of eyes and copy them.
In studying the mouths shown in Plate 25, consider the lips and teeth separately for the time being. Try drawing these mouths, and also get a mirror and draw your own mou^). Move the lips. Tilt your head at various angles. Notice that the teeth arc more or less indicated, not by lines between them, but by the gums above and the accents of the dark area l>elow. It is very easy to overemphasize the detail in teeth, so that they do not seem to stay within the mouth. Overemphasized teeth can spoil an otherwise good head.
Noses and cars are shown in Plate 26. Noses and ears arc affected by viewpoint and perspective as much as lips are. In other words, these all look the way they do becausc of the angle from which you see them. You can see why it is so important to establish the viewpoint of the whole head, before we can draw any of these features. When drawing from life it is most important that the pose of the head has not been changed between the drawing of separate features, since that will throw the drawing off completely. A nose must sit within the construction lines of the whole head and over the middle line, or it simply will not look right. The nose and car should be drawn together, so that their relationship is established. The ear looks very different from the front, side view, or back. Sec that the nose is at right angles to the line of the eyes and brows. When the brows tip, the nose tips; in fact, everything in the face tips.
Plate 27 gives some examples of laughing and smiling faces. Though these are restricted to line alone, you can feel the muscles operating in the flesh. What I call the sharp-cornercd smile is shown on the fellow in the upper right-hand corner. The faces in the middle of the top and bottom rows have a round-cornered laugh. This must come from the subject, for a round corner badly drawn can easily become a leer. Smiles require much study. You can learn a lot with your mirror.
In Plate 28 there arc some examples of other expressions, which may give you some idea of how the muscles of the face operate in expressions that arc not smiles. The action of the lips can vary a great deal. The basis of most expressions is usually in the mouth. For expressions in cartoons, the cartoonist keeps a mirror handy, since he can assume the expressions he wants more easily than he can explain it to a model.
In using the mirror look for the action of the muscles only; you need not even attempt a like-
DRAWING THE ncss of yourself. The mirror gives the artist one hig break—he always has a head and hands available to draw from. With two mirrors set properly he can get a side view or a three-quarter view, or make the left hand appear as the right and vice versa.
With expressions, it certainly docs no harm to take photographs of a lot of different ones. You can take pictures of your face in the mirror and thus stock up on various expressions for your files. I do not like to see an artist make a crutch of his camera, for I will always maintain that a man can get more into a drawing of his own than any tracing, pantograph, photostat, or projection can give. Photographs have certain distortions that always get into a drawing made from one, unless it is a freehand drawing—and sometimes even then. I think these distortions come from the fact that we see with two eyes,
\D AND HANDS
while the camera has only one. The distance of the camera from the subject also has a lot to do with it. Trace a photograph and you will see these things for yourself. Your artistry seems to go out the window, no matter how you try to eliminate that photographic look.
Various types and different expressions are illustrated in Plate 29. I have taken considerable liberty in creating both. It is good training to develop a type, then make several drawings of him showing different expressions. Make him smile, frown, pout, laugh, worry, or whatever else you can. It is really lots of fun, and all the time you are increasing your stock in trade.
In Plate 30 the face has been analyzed to show the stnictural reasons for the various lines and bumps. When you understand these, you can apply your knowledge in drawing faces of people of different ages, as Plate 31 shows.
AYeUPS WOftK LIKC THÄ ti PS
TWO WOAKINC TOCRTHttA
PLATE 24. Mechanics of the eyes 53
PLATE 25. Movement of the lips 54
PLATE 26. Construction of the nose and the cars
The appearancc of the nose and of the ears is affected by the point of view from which they are drawn. The real problem is much more one of setting them into the construction of the head in their correct positions than one of drawing the actual details themselves. Noses and ears vary widely in shape but not a great deal in basic construction. The nostrils should be set evenly on the line running from the base of the nose to the base of the ear. It is good practice to draw noses and ears from every angle until you are completely familiar with their placement in any pose of the head.
PLATE 27. Expression—»he laugh 56
PLATE 28. Various expressions 57
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