This rear view of the arm and hand expresses various devices of foreshortening and contraposition. Continual contraposition! changes in direction are apparent throughout. Note the long, elevated arm, then a descent of the palm back toward the inner arm, with a sharp drop of the thumb. Thumb knuckles fall steeply at right angles to palm knuckles, while finger knuckles rise high and quickly reverse direction downward and inward at right angles. On the deep underpalm, two fingers move forward somewhat tentatively in marked contrast to the taut thumb. This drawing also exhibits overlapping and shows the interlacing lines and barreling spiral forms described in previous drawings. Note how tonal changes, shadows, and contour accents all help to illustrate deep spatial recession.
Iixpansion and compression of elements increase the illusion of spatial recession. This is esjvcially important in views that need clarification, as when thick» fleshy forms join in soft mounds on the underside of the fingers, in the toned thumb forms at the top, the inward and outward paired arrows show how the drawing was conceived on the principle of expansion and compression. The alternating rhythms create opposition and pictorial dramatics. The compressed passages are fused into forms such as narrow tendons or creases. If these arc not apparent, then arbitrary- compressions can be expressed as skin tensions. If these make sense visually, and if the foreshortening works without confusion of advancement and recession, the devices of expansion and compression can be relied upon in virtually every foreshortening solution. For example, note in the two lower left drawings how the alternating paired arrows define both bony forms ami fleshy forms.
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