The drawing here is a wonderful exercise in foreshortening, using just the single long middle finger. The finger is seen in rotation in two directions—on a horizontal plane from side to side and on a vertical plane from top to bottom. The rotation schcmc is given in miniature in the diagram at upper left.
On the horizontal axis, the shorter the radius, the deeper the foreshortened view of the finger, producing shorter finger shank lengths but rounder nails and knuckles. The concept here is that cylindrical forms become circular in foreshortening. This is also true for fingers in vertical rotation. As before, any new finger in the downward progres* sion becomes more circular as foreshortening occurs, and with the increase of spatial depth, the overlapping of cursed elements also increases. It will be profitable to study slowly each of the phases on both planes shown here
The use of tonal or value changes is an indispensable factor in the development of spatial recession. The drawing at lower left, showing top, side, and under-plane surfaces oi the two fingers» reveals that advancing surfaces seen horizontally are defined with light tones; receding surfaces which fall away to side planes arc given intermediate tones; and regressing forms, such as underplanes, which lie farthest from the light, arc expressed in deepest values, The tonal or value system shown in the sketch is simplified in order to permit the use of accented dark contours on undcnmrface areas.
The developed drawing in the center shows a sequence of a single bent finger moving in an arc of foreshortened changes. The advancing plane here is the middle phalanx of each finger. Thus the top surface is generally lightest. The intermediate surfaces are found mainly on side planes and small protrusions and are defined with grayish tones. The surfaces lying deepest are toned the darkest.
In the upper sequence, the single finger is turned around, with the fleshy palmar surface exposed to the light source. This finger is seen in various positions of the rotational swing. Thus the terminal phalanx may show lighter or darker values, depending on the advancing, receding, or regressing spatial direction.
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