Proportions And Measurements

Hand Positions

Anyone who has tried to draw the human figure has quickly learned that the hand is among the most complex of the body forms. To draw the hand accurately and with precision, you must know how to relate the individual parts to each other and how to unify the separate elements- A knowledge of proportions is necessary in art and should be used as a learning stage to new expressive adventures. This chapter will introduce essential measuring cues and their use in drawing the hand in correct...

Angle Of Palm Elevation

Drawing Hands Robots

When the palm bends upward at the wrist with fingers ex ended, as shown in the upper sketch, the line of elevation from the horizontal arm will rise to an angle of 45 to 50 degrees. The vertical arrow indicates the point of direction change. Yet when the fingers close or are tightly clenched, the angle of elevation from wrist to metacarpals is not affected. Note the correspondence of angles in lower and upper drawings. The reason the palm will no change its angle of elevation, whether the...

Historical Meanings Success Or Failure

Success And Failure Drawing

The drawings here suggest the yes or no, life or death decisions of an earlier Roman society. While these signals no longer carry tte same political or moral connotations, they still suggest some of the meanings. If the thumb is thrust vigorously into the air. it suggests survival, victory, life. If it is Ihrust downward, it suggests extinction, failure, death. In the Roman world, the thumb was called the Thumb of Hercules, suggesting virility and vitality. In our time we see the closed fist...

Rod Am Ball Forms Of The Fingers

Using the simple ball knuckle and rod shank forms we have studied earlier, note thai the three rods shanks of the index finger appear quite long in this three-quarter view. We see the other fingers more straight on, as we move progressively to the left. The rods or bone shanks arc seen as shortest, especially the rear shank, on the fourth finger. This is due to a foreshortening or compression of frontal space. One of the ways to test the accuracy of the drawings of foreshortened fingers is to...

How To Draw A Claw Hand

The hand can also act as a cup or a bowl, with lingers extended in a circle holding something, as shown from the side view in the upper drawing and from front view in the lower. This is a remarkable change from the hand as a tool, a club, a cleaver. Here the hand must respond to an object outside itself, the object actually governing the contour the hand takes on. When the ami is projected forward against the hand, which is firmly placed with fingertips braced on a table or the ground, with...

Anatomical Landmarks And Surface Stress

Dimensioning Technical Drawings

The artist can truly understand surface forms only by knowing their underlying structures and their form and behavior under tension, stress, and activity, Wc are still dealing with anatomy in this chapter, but from the viewpoint of dominant surface stress. The skeletal detail below shows the broad lower end of the humerus from which two bony prominences emerge, the condyles A A2 . These are part of the joint which articulates with the lower arm bone. The inner condyle A is remarkably extended,...

Kinger And Thumb Closure

Three Finger Drawing

When the hand closes into a fist, the last three fingers precede the index finger and close into the somewhat triangular hollow of the palm below the row of knuckles at tlx base. Interestingly, these fingers all seem to be of equal length as closure occurs, and the tips line up in the palm hoi low. In the second phase, as the three rear fingers go into a tight flexion, there is little room in the palm for closing the forefinger. Any attempt to do so feels uncomfortable. But the thumb closing in...

Freedom And Restriction In Subject

Violin Hands

Again, the two drawings here arc a contrast this time between the restrictions imposed by an object in the hands and complete freedom. In the drawing at right, the violin restricts hand position and behavior to its configurations. This would also lie true for behavior or maneuvers where machines or implements arc used. By contrast, the sketch at left is free and playful, and subject to numerous interpretations. Drawing this form allows the imagination free rein and is much less demanding than...

Communication And Gesture

The hand not only functions as a tool, it also communicates meaning and experience supporting facial and bodily expression. These meanings often go beyond the level of verbal expression and are meant to be picked up by the acute swiftness of the eye. In this chapter we shall look at some typical and well-known gestures, and study how only the gestures made by the hand could communicate the meaning intended. Some gestures discussed here arc cultural and cross-cultural, still carrying close to...