Contr A Posed Fingers

This is another example of con raposed fingers moving in three contrary' directions. The thumb and ring fingers in opposition to each other (see broken arrows) compress in tight contact, the ring finger underneath and bent into the palm, the thumb on top. Cast shadows, overlapping, and varying tones all help to illustrate depth. The two fingers extended outward and right and the little finger bent tautly inward and left express a diametrical cross-palm overlap. The extreme divergence excites...

Summary View

This rear view of the arm and hand expresses various devices of foreshortening and contraposition. Continual contraposition changes in direction are apparent throughout. Note the long, elevated arm, then a descent of the palm back toward the inner arm, with a sharp drop of the thumb. Thumb knuckles fall steeply at right angles to palm knuckles, while finger knuckles rise high and quickly reverse direction downward and inward at right angles. On the deep underpalm, two fingers move forward...

Multiple Fingersfront View

This sketch shows a from multiple-finger view of the hand and the receding arm. The fingers are both extended and partially closed. It is a rather complex treatment of the problem of discovering new finger positions and examining total hand actions. The little finger is shown in three phases, the thumb in four, and the other fingers in two. Most aspects are developed transparently, which helps in making judgments about placement and measurement. It is important to train your imagination with...

Hands As A Basket

To draw hands in the position of a basket or a sling requires exacting control in finger placement- Alternating elements dovetail as bony knuckles interlock with the com pressed 3nd cushioned finger shanks. This position creates a rhythmic senes of undulations, with its carefully articulated rod and ball forms. Note the fingernails gradually turning toward the underside of the basket, becoming less and less round down to the disappearing fingers. Attention to these minimal forms is as important...

Parallel Projection

How Draw Clenched Fist

The parallel projection method is a useful device for visualizing possible new hand views. Start willi a simple sketch of some easily worked out action such as the side view with extended fingers shown here. Then set out a few horizontal track lines extending from major forms. In this case, thumb and palm muscle thickness and index and little finger lengths arc being tracked. These choices arc purely arbitrary' and only serve to identify change of direction in form. If you need more than these...

Finger Angles

Degree Flexion Finger

All fingers lend to show a general 90-degrce limit of closure, knuckle to knuckle, from the thumb through the little finger. The sketch above shows the thumb pointed out 90 degrees from the palm line and then drawn down and closed at 90 degrees. Both positions fonn right angles with the index finger. The sketch below shows the index finger in tight flexion, producing a square comer at every knuckle bend. Note the 90-degree bends in the middle finger.

Historical Meanings Success Or Failure

Success And Failure Drawing

The drawings here suggest the yes or no, life or death decisions of an earlier Roman society. While these signals no longer carry tte same political or moral connotations, they still suggest some of the meanings. If the thumb is thrust vigorously into the air. it suggests survival, victory, life. If it is Ihrust downward, it suggests extinction, failure, death. In the Roman world, the thumb was called the Thumb of Hercules, suggesting virility and vitality. In our time we see the closed fist...

Reversing Positions

Inked Hand Pointing Drawing

You can now do a surprising thing you can develop the drawing of frontal foreshortening just discussed mio its reversed position. First trace or copy closely the outline of the front view as shown al upper left. Note that the forearm now inserts itself into the dorsal side of the hand. This deliberately causes the eye to accept a shift in the spatial field from front to rear. Now dcclively insert the contours of the palm knuckle bulges, In the drawing at right note the accented knuckle forms,...

Downward Thumb Rotation

When the thumb is extended and lying close to the line of the index finger, the maximum elevation it can achieve here is a position just barely above the level of the palm, The upper sketch demonstrates this limitation, As the thumb rotates downward, it will cross the index finger boundary at At As it slips past, the thumbnail angle will be past the 90-degjee vertical to 100 and 120 degrees lt sec thumb at B gt . In these extreme positions. the thumb will go into Opposition to all the fingers....

Visual Tension

Middle Finger Drawing

Depth increases visual tension and impact when fingers con-irapose each other, especially in overlapping, In this drawing, index finger and thumb are thrust left and out note direction of arrows , while the rear fingers. less tense and darker, bend inward for contrast. The arm is also part of this leftward, energized thrust. Note how solid the near forms appear and how recessive the ones farther back seem. This drawing shows overlapping and opposition, with changing thumb and little finger...

Aging

Complete Guide Pencil Drawing

The hand changes radically from infancy to old age, not only in size, proportion, and structure, but also in skin texture, tissue structure, and surface characteristics such as hair density, pigmentation, and size, shape, and texture of fingernails. Its dexterity and capabilities, its responsiveness, its range of gestures, and the subtlety of its emotional communications also change. Studies of the developmental and aging aspects of the hand have sometimes been overlooked in anatomical works....

Frontal Parallel Projection

Hand Holding

With tracks laid out, sketch in a tentative deep frontal view of a hand, holding the fonos to the limits of the extended lines. If they confuse the eye, sketch them in erasable colored pen-cits or label each line with the form's name. When you have put in your first forms, you will sec a new frontal view of the hand emerge. If doubts arise, project new parallels of smaller forms. Or if certain forms inhibit you or need to be changed, then change them. The drawing is your own and it's up to you...

Infancy To One Year

Reaching Hand Drawing

The general character of the baby's hand docs not change substantially during the first year. The fomis arc still squat, square, and fleshy, with little strong delineation between forms. Both dorsal and palmar sides of the hand are palpable and chubby, with dainty shell-like fingernails. Yet the hands of a one-year-old child have begun to move with more certainty probing, seeking, feeling. The hand is the first form to project into and explore an unfamiliar world. The wo-year-old child is not...

Kinger And Thumb Closure

Three Finger Drawing

When the hand closes into a fist, the last three fingers precede the index finger and close into the somewhat triangular hollow of the palm below the row of knuckles at tlx base. Interestingly, these fingers all seem to be of equal length as closure occurs, and the tips line up in the palm hoi low. In the second phase, as the three rear fingers go into a tight flexion, there is little room in the palm for closing the forefinger. Any attempt to do so feels uncomfortable. But the thumb closing in...

Fifteen To Seventeen Years

The young adult's hand has now reached a mature length and bulk, with the dense bones and muscles, I hick skin texture, and firmness thai characterize maturity. Note the almost fully developed knuckle capsules, the carpal eminences, the ulnar projection. the tendons in action. The hand expresses he contrary and ambivalent tensions that often charac-this age. The most striking changes that occur in the mature hand after twenty years of age arc in behavior A more purposeful, well-coordinated...

Side View Angles

Side Views Female Figures

Seen from the side view, when the thumb lies relaxed and adjacent to the side of the palm arid index finger hold up your hand and observe , the angle of the lipped thumb will be about 30 to 35 degrees from the vertical side plane of the palm and finger shown by vertical arrows . The tipped ihumb is defined here from the angle of the fingernail, the planes of the knuckles, the phalanx, and the metacarpal. Note how this angle of tipping is consistent if the ihumb is brought down, but will not...

Fist Closure

Middle Finger Side Pose

Hi the closed fist, it is important to note the correct orientation of the thumb in opposition to the fingers. In right closure the thumb lip will abut the shank of the middle phalanx of the long finger just below the closed knuckle. The line of thumb direction shown by broken arrows points diagonally from the place of middle finger contact across the center of the fourth finger knuckle toward the intersection of the little finger palm knuckle, INSIDE AND OUTSIDE ANGLES The drawing here il...

Hand Actions With An Inflexible Object

In a drawing of a hand held against a hard, unyielding object, the hand is not the primary concern m the initial stage. This sketch illustrates how the hand must relate convincingly to the structure of the guitar, once its position and design have been established. The hands have a special configuration for playing, and a good reference source such as a photograph or a live model should be used to make sure this is accurate before proceeding with drawing refinements such as form stresses,...

Rod Am Ball Forms Of The Fingers

Using the simple ball knuckle and rod shank forms we have studied earlier, note thai the three rods shanks of the index finger appear quite long in this three-quarter view. We see the other fingers more straight on, as we move progressively to the left. The rods or bone shanks arc seen as shortest, especially the rear shank, on the fourth finger. This is due to a foreshortening or compression of frontal space. One of the ways to test the accuracy of the drawings of foreshortened fingers is to...

Overlapping Interlacing And Spiralnc

Human Body Foreshortened

Overlapping of forms is an essential aspect of foreshortening. Depending on the view from which they are seen, a near form cuts in front of or overlaps the one behind, the second overlaps the third, and so on, like beads on a string. Most overlapping hand forms are curved knuckles, muscle mounds, fleshy finger pads. These curves are linked by lines formed by narrow finger shanks, tendons coursing down the fingers, surface skin covering, interphalangeal webs, 3nd skin wrinkles, which tend to...

Behavior And Occupations

Drawing Hands Vector

Drawing hands involved in various occupations can be either prosaic or exciting. Since the hand is the most plastic part of the anatomy, it can fit around or grasp an infinite variety of shapes in countless positions. Thus an enormous variety of occupations can involve highly complex use of the hands. Occupations often require the use of some kind of utensil or tool to which the hand must adapt itself. The kind of drawing one does of the hand working at various occupations is determined to a...

Forty To Fiftyfive Years

In the middle years, as in the emerging mature phase, a long plateau of very slow change takes place. Skin texture, especially on the dorsal surface, tends to be firm and thick, with the beginning of a fine network of lines and wrinkles not conditioned by any specific behavior. Palm pads are thicker, and creases tend to be softer and puffier, the palm surface cut through with major and minor horizontal and vertical lines and irregular fissures. The dorsal side tends to be hairy in the male with...

Foreshortening

It is impossible to draw the human hand accurately and artistically without an understanding of foreshortening, the overlapping of forms seen in spatial recession. Because there is scarcely any hand position which does not involve some form seen in deep space, in order to achieve a three-dimensional rather than a flat effect, it is important to see and understand advancing and receding forms. A difficulty often encountered is the problem of retaining the hand's rhythms, its flow, and its sense...

Freedom And Restriction In Subject

Violin Hands

Again, the two drawings here arc a contrast this time between the restrictions imposed by an object in the hands and complete freedom. In the drawing at right, the violin restricts hand position and behavior to its configurations. This would also lie true for behavior or maneuvers where machines or implements arc used. By contrast, the sketch at left is free and playful, and subject to numerous interpretations. Drawing this form allows the imagination free rein and is much less demanding than...

Countingj

Ideal Proportion

The hand with three fingers upraised signifies number three, indicating the presence of three persons, a food order, a place or date, an umpire's call, or a bid for cards. This is a special cultural form of counting, widely known but not universal. Another means of counting puts both hands to work. One hand is closed into a fist, and the opposite index finger tallies off cach number as the fingers flip out of the fist, starting with the tittle finger as number one. The result could be the...

How To Draw A Claw Hand

The hand can also act as a cup or a bowl, with lingers extended in a circle holding something, as shown from the side view in the upper drawing and from front view in the lower. This is a remarkable change from the hand as a tool, a club, a cleaver. Here the hand must respond to an object outside itself, the object actually governing the contour the hand takes on. When the ami is projected forward against the hand, which is firmly placed with fingertips braced on a table or the ground, with...

Index

Abductor digiti minimiquinti, 45. 47, 48 Abductor longus, 57 Abductor pollicis brevis, 46 Abductor pollicus longus, 45, 46, 57 Abductor pollicis trans versus, 47 Adductor polticis, 45, 46, 48 Adult hands, 130-133 Anatomy and structure, 40-52 Annular ligament, 45,46, 47,48 Arc rhythms, 33 Arm, upper and lower, 11-15 structures, 53 Capitate bone, 41 Carpals, 41-44, 58, 128 Carpi ulnans, 68 Carpo-metacarpal joint, 44 Carpus, 41 Cartilaginous materials, 123 Children's hands, 123-129 Compressions,...

Inventing Hands In Action

The best hand actions are not necessarily copied cxactly from life. Pictorial logic, design necessity, and the overall concept of the work impose their own demands. Anyone who has seen the interpretive and expressive responses of Leonardo, Michelangelo, Grunewald, or Rodin, will understand the need of the artist to create form in response to his intuitive impulses. A starting point for drawing an original and personal hand in action is to sketch, perhaps even copy, a prosaic view of one of the...

Foreshortening In Rotation

Foreshortening Finger

The drawing here is a wonderful exercise in foreshortening, using just the single long middle finger. The finger is seen in rotation in two directions on a horizontal plane from side to side and on a vertical plane from top to bottom. The rotation schcmc is given in miniature in the diagram at upper left. On the horizontal axis, the shorter the radius, the deeper the foreshortened view of the finger, producing shorter finger shank lengths but rounder nails and knuckles. The concept here is that...

Communication And Gesture

The hand not only functions as a tool, it also communicates meaning and experience supporting facial and bodily expression. These meanings often go beyond the level of verbal expression and are meant to be picked up by the acute swiftness of the eye. In this chapter we shall look at some typical and well-known gestures, and study how only the gestures made by the hand could communicate the meaning intended. Some gestures discussed here arc cultural and cross-cultural, still carrying close to...

Hand Palm Drawing

Line Drawings Hands

The hand is the most complex and variable form in the human body. No other form can respond with such extraordinary range and functional capability and with such case and grace. For example, the separate fingers can perform in immense variety of actions, and the thumb, obliquely opposing the four long fingers and palm wedge, aids in actions such as grasping, prying, and supporting. However, not all the forms of the hand are as free to move as the fingers. Some fomis arc bound tightly by...

The Hand As A Claw

Drawing Hand

With fingers open, spread, and haJf flexed like claws, the versatile hand takes on the function of a rake or scraper, as in the upper sketch, or a comb or grappling hook, as shown below . Note the cramped look of the upper hand, obvitusly taut for dealing with stubborn gnt or gravel. The somewhat open fingers below are more appropriate for running gently through the hair. When the hand is virtually closed except for ihe index finger arching forward and inward, iIk hand as a hook suggests...

The Clenched Fist

Again, similar hands can express significant differences. With fingers closed and thumb folded on the index finger, all members lightly clenched together, the hand becomes a fist, as shown in the drawings here. But in action, different connotations appear. The upthrusting fist at top suggests the hand as a weapon the overarm swing at center turns the hand into a club and the hand at bottom, fist in swill descent with strong force directed against the hypothenar cushion, becomes a mallet,...

The Hand As An Instrument

While most anatomical structures tend to serve discrete and specialized ends, the hand, because of its plasticity, is designed to serve a wide range of needs. In a certain position, with only slight shifts in tension or direction, it can be used for very different purposes and can even express very different meanings. You will see this subtle shift in use and meaning in the drawings in this chapter. After you have explored the various ways the hand can function as a tool or an instrument as...

Infancy

Infant Hands

The infant hand luring the first weeks of life is diminutive, about the size of an adult thumb, although this varies with individuals, At birth it may be thin and wrinkled or somewhat fleshy, but the skin texture is fine and satiny. One important characteristic is that there are no protrusions such as knuckles or prominent wrist bones which mark points at which forms are joined. Instead, the infant hand has only dimpled depressions at the finger segments and fatty rolls at the wrist, since the...

Anatomyand Structure

Only Sketched Drawings

When the artist studies human anatomy, he is not usually pursuing the same goals as the medical doctor or the scientist. He is searching for visual form which can be translated aesthetically and augmented imaginatively. However, knowledge o anatomy is essential for an understanding of various attitudes, postures, and movements. It allows the artist to truly understand the surface contours of the body because he knows the forms and structures underneath. It also teaches him why the surface forms...

Forms And Structures

Arm Muscle

The hand is not a flat, two-dimensional shape without volume. It is a dynamic, three dimensional body form, energetic and complex, each of its forms and structures interrelated. In this chapter we will look at it from various angles in space and depth, noting its curves and rhythms and examining the bulk, sizes, shapes, and masses of its individual parts and their relation to the whole. The main masses of the upper and lower ami are good example of the principle of contraposition one form being...

Anatomical Landmarks And Surface Stress

Drawing Hands

The artist can truly understand surface forms only by knowing their underlying structures and their form and behavior under tension, stress, and activity, Wc are still dealing with anatomy in this chapter, but from the viewpoint of dominant surface stress. The skeletal detail below shows the broad lower end of the humerus from which two bony prominences emerge, the condyles A A2 . These are part of the joint which articulates with the lower arm bone. The inner condyle A is remarkably extended,...

Angle Of Palm Elevation

Drawing Hands Robots

When the palm bends upward at the wrist with fingers ex ended, as shown in the upper sketch, the line of elevation from the horizontal arm will rise to an angle of 45 to 50 degrees. The vertical arrow indicates the point of direction change. Yet when the fingers close or are tightly clenched, the angle of elevation from wrist to metacarpals is not affected. Note the correspondence of angles in lower and upper drawings. The reason the palm will no change its angle of elevation, whether the...

Proportions And Measurements

Line Art Realistic Fingers

Anyone who has tried to draw the human figure has quickly learned that the hand is among the most complex of the body forms. To draw the hand accurately and with precision, you must know how to relate the individual parts to each other and how to unify the separate elements- A knowledge of proportions is necessary in art and should be used as a learning stage to new expressive adventures. This chapter will introduce essential measuring cues and their use in drawing the hand in correct...