1. The body is divided into moving parts (mainly at the joints). Roughly speaking, the body is separated into the head, neck, chest, waist, buttocks, thighs, calves and feet. Make sure you divide the chest into two. If the chest is struck, the solar plexus caves in. So think of it as a large joint. Always remember which direction the front part and sides of the body are facing.
2. Adding on the arms. Naturally, they come out at the sides. The knee is joined at the front. Professionals draw the knee joints as circles in their rough sketches. Take care to get the thickness of the instep and toes right. Draw the height of the instep and add the moving part for the toes.
3. It is helpful to think of the ankle and shoulder joints as balls as if the human body was a robot. The soles of the feet are not flat but at an angle. The shoulders don't just come out at the sides. • They are connected to the neck at an angle at the front of the body as well. Note that the calves bulge.
4. Think of the arms as moving on balls. Basically, shading depends on the direction of light. Refer to the shading on the flanks of (1). Remember that even the fingers should be shaded. Just by looking at the shading in (4), you can see how getting a feel for shading using (1) improves the drawing.
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