The Rule for Scaling Figures on the Ground Plane

All figures of the same height, when standing the horizon at the same vertical point on the on the same ground plane, will be crossed by figure,

Aircraft Sketch Principles

When we know that an inclined plane has a horizon and vanishing points which are used in the same manner as those of a level plane, seal-ing figures on an inclined plane becomes much simpler. So long as the entire plane has the same slant, the perspective is worked out in the manner shown in the diagram below. The diagram shows all the necessary vanishing points.

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Scaling Drafting

The projection of figures on hillsides can be very puzzling if the principle is not understood. The drawing below offers a simple solution. Whenever the plane changes as it goes around the hill, we draw to a new horizon, To keep only one horizon would continue the same plane at the same incline to infinity.

Many artists do not realize that a reflection does not duplicate the perspective of the original. The perspective of the reflection is thai which the actual object would have if it were inverted and placed in the position of the image. Though the proportions are duplicated, the actual drawing is quite different.

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Plane Figure Drawing

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A reflection is not a reversed tracing of the thing reflected, but is an image with its own perspective. If you turn the drawing around, the difference in the angle of view becomes apparent. The figure and its image attach at the water line. All points of the figure must be projected down to a similar point on the image, which is directly below. Both the figure and its reflection are drawn to one vanishing point on the horizon. Any movement of the water affects the reflection.

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