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ALL DRAWING STEMS FROM ONE OR MORE OF THESE FORMS
Art is really having its chance. The urge to ¿raw seems to have taken hold of many more thousands today than ever before- 11 has spread across the nation. While many are interested in art as a pastime or hobby, others would gladly choose it as a means of livelihood if they were convinced that their ability was sufficient to provide any real hope of success.
There will always be a certain amount of confusion about what is talent or native ability in drawing and what is knowledge of the craft. Too often, knowledge is construed as talent. On the other hand, drawing that lacks constructive knowledge is seldom successful as drawing. Toe truth is that we do not see the talent until the means of bringing it forth has been developed. That means is a reasonably accurate analysis and understanding of the laws of nature as they apply to man s vision.
Drawing is vision Oti paper, More than that, it is individual vision, tied up with individual perception, interest, observation, character, philosophy, and a host of other qualities all coming from one source. It cannot, and to be successful should not, be anything else. Drawing is very eiosely related to the other creative arts, all of which are Outcropping? of a desire to express individual emotion^ to make the other fellow conscious of our inner feelings. We want him to listen Or look, and we want his appreciation of what we have to offer. Perhaps we wish to receive admiration for our particular accomplishments, Perhaps we have a message wo deem worthy of others1 attention. Perhaps we see in such an effort an enjoyable means of making Ourselves useful, or providing ourselves with die livelihood that we must achieve in some way.
We who choose art as our medium of expression should realize that it has certain fundamentals from which we progress, just as there arc fundamentals of literature, drama, or music.
Unfortunately, the fundamentals of an approach to art have not usually been so clearly defined for practical study as have those of Some other creative activities. Commercial art is a comparatively new profession. However, the leaders in the field are beginning to contribute time and thought to its teaching.
Success in the creative fields is always accompanied by distinctiveness, something that singles one out as an individual and sets him apart from the crowd One artist can be as successful as another in his use of basic knowledge, without repeating another artist's performance. If there is any way that one man in the craft can really help another, it is by increasing his knowledge of the craft itself, not in the particular qualities of tilt! man's own work, The knowledge of our craft must he pooled, as it is in the sciences and other professions, each of us absorbing and in turn contributing. It is difficult for a man to teach without presenting his own work as an example. But X am certain that in this book, for examplci there is much material which the student can apply to his own work without reference to any particular style or technique of mine.
Suppose we have two drawings befoje us. One appeals; the Other does not. This one is good, the other had. Why? I believe lean point out underlying reasons that are perfectly understandable. Strangely enough, the reasons are usually not found in art books or taught in classes. The response to drawing ¡s related to the emotions and experience of the individual, and is wholely apart, so far as I know, from the teaching of art. Yet i do not believe art can go very far unless the artist has some sort of an understanding of this response. An artist can go all his life without realizing why his work does not appeal. Even successful arlisti may not really know why their work does appeal, though they thank heaven it does.
To understand why a drawing does or does not appeal, we must recognize a pertain ability that is developed in every normal individual from early childhood through adult lift. The term "intelligent perception" I think comes .is close as any to describing this faculty. It is vision coordinated with the brain. Jt is a sense of right-iless developed by contact. At some time or other, our brains accept certain cflccU or appearances as truth, and abide bv these decisions. We learn to distinguish one appearance from another, in site or proportion, in color, and in texture. All the senses combine to give us intelligent perception. We have a sense of space or depth, even if we know* nothing of the science of perspective. We are quickly aware of distortion or deformity, since the appearance docs not coincide with what experience has taught us is normal ov truthful. Form is registered in the mind, even if we know nothing of anatomy and proportion* so that we recognize a face immediately, though we could not even give a good verbal description of it. Our sense of proportion tells us that this is a child and that a midget, or this a puppy and that a small dog. Intelligent perception includes a feeling for bulk and contour. We know a swan from a goose, or a goose from a duck. This trait is as well developed iti those who look at art as it is iii artists. We all as individuals have sul> Consciously accepted certain effects of light. We know when appearances are consistent with daylight, artificial light, twilight, or bright sunlight, Suck perception is part of nature,
The minute the spectator sees change of proportion, distortion, change of form, color, 01 texture, he realizes that something is wrong. The cleverest imitation will not fool him. The dummy in the department store window is a dummy to everyone. We kn0W flesh from wax by the effects that have previously been registered in our minds.
We artists cannot ignore this intelligent per-caption and expect to secure intelligent response, or even favorable response, to our work. Make up your mind that your audience will react to your work just as il dees to life itself, Intelligent perception finds only truth convincing, The lay-man does not need to know anything of art Co know whether he likes your work or not, We can use ail the arguments, alii)is, and defenses in the world; we can explain ourselves hoarse; but we eannoL affect something so deeply imbedded in human cons deepness. If what we say in paint is untrue, in color values or effect, the spectator feels it, and there is nothing we can do to convince him otherwise.
Psychological response goes still further. Every picture should have some reason for existence, some purpose behind it. If we can make the spectator feel that purpo.se we have succeeded further in capturing his interest. Not only is every mail living among nature's effects, he is also living experiences. Life is not only what he sees but what he feels. Supplementing in our drawing an emotion that is already within him secures further response. You can feel emotion only within yourself, and any emotion that is in your work must comc from you, Yon can be sure that most of the emotions you feel are also present in others. That is why we live through a movie or a play with the characters. To a considerable degree, we like or dislike a performance insofar as it has appealed to our individual emotions. For the same reason we like or dislike a piece of art,
When drawing is convincing to the intelligent perception of the spectator because of its Tightness of forni, texture, space, and lighting, and at the same time appeals to his cmoLions, the artist can depend upon a favorable response.
Drawing should not be taught by teaching specialized or individual techniques. What should be taught is the way to get the form, the contours, and the values, regardless of mannerisms. [ fow Jim Jones handles a pencil has little to do with your main problem. IIow he handles light on form and contours is what to look for, in ease he interests you. However, if Jim Jones is good, you can be quite certain he goes for his information to the one best source — life itself, fie has probably employed a model or used a camera to secure intelligent information. lie keeps faking to a minimum, using his imagination only when lie lias no other way of getting a result
There arc certain basic elements of good drawing without which no drawing can really be sue-, cessful. I believe these elements can he taught. So far, I have been unable to find a textbook of drawing which defines the relationship of proportion and perspective to the study of light and shadow. Since these elements are so thoroughly interdependent, this hook, which presents them that way, should meet a real need.
For those who have an understanding of nature's laws, plus vision, the greatest teacher is nature itself. If the artist has the technique of depicting the construction and contours of an object set in space, plus the knowledge of how light operates on the forms we consider basic, ho has acquired the springboard to his own individual expression, which, after all, is of greater value than anything else,
Suppose we ask ourselves what a good drawing is? Let iis think first of the qualities that make up a good drawing; these point out the departments of our craft. Anything we draw is dimensional, It has height, breadth, and thicks ticss. There is a ratio between the three dimensions, which we call proportion. Then all the parts within the subject have ratios to one another, and if these arc corrcct they add up to make the over-all dimensions correct. A drawing cannot he good if it is not in proportion, so let us call proportion the number one element
Since the proportions exist in the thing we wish to draw even before we have drawn it, let ns consider how we shall place it within the boundaries of our paper surface. Let us think of the paper as representing open space, within which we wish to place the subject. We want it to settle nicely within the area in which it is most pleasing and at the same time most convincing. We look carefully at the subject to select a viewpoint. We may cut ¡1 finder—a rectangular opening in a card that is in propor tion to o*ir drawing area — to see just where the subject should go, IIow big or small should it be, how close or far away, and where? Let us call this element placement.
When ¡1 viewpoint has been selected and a placement decided upoti, we start to draw. The tlurd element pops up, We cannot draw an object without perspective. Since perspective is the first main problem that arises, it is the first thing the artist should learn, An understanding of it should precede or be a part of every art-school training. ><0 drawing is real drawing unless it is related to an eye level or horizon, with the relationship understood by the artist The subject of perspective cannot he covered completely in this hook, but I shall attempt to give the stock-in-trade knowledge of it lb at I believe is indispensable. I suggest, however, that you get other books, and, while you arc learning, learn as much about it as possible, since it is one of the most important elements of successful drawing.
Suppose we understand the perspective and get it eoiTcct. What now? In order to set up convincing form in the effect of light, halftone, and shadow, we must separate the three into planes. Through the effect of light on planes we arrive at ¡lie solid appearance of the form. We look first for areas or planes of full light, then, as the form turns awav from the liffht, we find the half-
tone areas or planes. Beyond the halftone planes we find the areas that are in shadow, the shadow planes. Within the shadow we find reflected light, which, though a part of the shadow, still defines form.
After defining the plains, we come to another element of good drawing, which we may call pattern. When we deal with values, we become involved in the tonal arrangement of a drawing. Pattern is another aspect of composition. Placement relates to composition in terms of line; pattern relates to it in terms of tonal areas.
Here is where creativeness gets its first chance. We can arrange the patterns of a subject, not simply accept all patterns as the eamcra docs. Natures patterns tnav be good or bad in our opinion and within our particular spacc limits, Every drawing is ¿111 artist's problem in spacing and arrangement of die patterns of tone.
Composition is an abstract element. Only a little of composition can be taught. There are books on the subject worthy of hard study. Add some to your library. However, composition seems to be more or less instinctive. Most of us would rather make our own arrangements than be told how to make them.
The best way to arrive at pattern or composition is to make small sketches, which we call thumbnail sketches. Make them up of three or four tones, until you get the feel of the subject. These may well precede any actual drawing. Drawing is essentially design, and design is drawing. One will always be the outgrowth of the other.
Now, if yon have not already noticed it, we have listed five elements of good drawing, all starting with the letter F. These are: proportion, placement, perspective, planes, and pattern. Let 11s call them the five Ps.
But these are not (lie only considerations of good drawing, A while back we were considering the emotional qualities which every good drawing should have. If the subject is inanimate, the emotional qualities will lie in the way it is presented. If it is a landscape, it may he the mood of the day, or the freshness and charm of handling. In a still life it may be the appeal of the subjcct matter, the beauty of the objects themselves. In a figure subject, the emotion may be revealed in the action or expression of the figures, or in the story they tell.
Before beginning to draw, close your eyes and try to see the subject. Think of what would be happening. Think of the basic idea or purpose of the effort. All this may be called the conception of the subjeet, Again we need to make thumbnail sketches, even scribbles, until our subject begins to take shape.
Remembering that sense of lightness which we may espect in those who will look at or judge our efforts, we now need information in order to do the thing convincingly, We have an idea, we have made sketches, and we must now proceed with our drawing. The next important element is construction. Now we must collect photographs, make sketches and studies, hunt up clippings, go to any available source for correct information. If we can afford it, we gist a model for photographs or studies,
There is another element so tilosely related to construction that it must be considered at the same time, sincc we cannot achieve the one without the other. This is contour, Construction is concerned with the bulk or the mass from the inside out. Contour is the outer edge of the mass in space. Construction is based on viewpoint and perspective. The appearance of an object may be different from every angle. Therefore we must establish an eye level to which wc relate all construction and contour. No subject cam be drawn correctly to more than one eye level. This is because it is impossible to look at any object front two positions at the same time. For this reason, the information we have must be adjusted to fit the problem. Two clippings or two photographs of the same subject will seldom have the same eye level, or —and this is vitally important — the same source or kind of light. The ideal information, of course, is secured by having all parts of the subject before you at once, in the same lighting, from one viewpoint of eye or camera. Beginners especially should work this way. That is why still life, art-school poses, and outdoor seenes are the best subjects from which to learn to see and to draw. But we still need the fundamental information on how to draw them. The student who goes to an art class knowing something of proportion and perspective and how to achieve them will pass his fellow students by leaps and bounds, and when lie leaves school his work will gain acceptance much faster than theirs will.
Without a knowledge of perspective and the lighting ol the basic forms, or some idea of measuring and proportion, the artist becomes a slave to photostats, projectors, or any other
Think of your paper as representing open space, not as a two-dimensional surface, hut as if its edges were the boundaries of an open window. You look at all of life and nature through this paper window.
This involves dimension, contour, viewpoint (meaning perspective), and lighting. Only through light, which produces all tone, color, and appearance, can we producc a true image of life.
Attempt either to set forms into this space that exists before you or to give a feeling of actuality to forms which you create from a knowledge of the laws of nature. We study nature for effects and set them down.
Really to draw, we cannot think only of any single aspect of drawing, such as contour, without the other essentials, but must seek to unify all aspects into a complete and organized whole.
The habit of setting down y oui mental conception of a subject in miniature roughs can play a most important part in your development as an artist. The best way is to shut your eyes and try to visualize what is taking place, as it would be in life. You have no detail to go by, so just suggest the material. Think of some kind of light. It will come.
mechanical means that will substitute for ihe knowledge he lacks. If he traces or projects photographs instead of drawing his subject, the result will show up in his work. Such an artist will seldom reach the front rank, unless his work has other qualities that somehow make it better than the work of other photograph copyists. If a drawing is to be individual and dynamic, the artist must nst; the camera only to provide something to draw from, as he would draw from a model. The camera docs not see in the same perspective or proportion as do the two human eyes. Being a slave to the camera usually leaves the stamp of the photographic on a man's work. If you use photographs, square them off and draw, but always draw, don't trace.
I once knew of an artist who was asked to do a subject away from home, when all his copying paraphernalia was back in his studio. For once he was forced to draw. He went through torture before he had finished. The drawing never was good. Re had never realized how much he depended upon his crutches. He went hack home and started drawing in earnest. The slave to the camera never really knows how bad he really is or what his work lacks, until he can see the difference of real drawing on his own drawing board. The way he works is a man's own business, but it should be pounded into the novice that his greatest hope lies in his own good freehand drawing.
When, by dint of hard effort, we succed in getting construction and contour, there is something else, closely related to both, which we must be constantly thinking of. That is character. Character is the thing that distinguishes one object or person from any other. Usage brings character to an object; experience brings it to man. Character is alway a singularity. Pic-torially, character is a form that belongs to this subject and no other. It is form in a particular place, under particular lighting conditions, from a particular viewpoint, with particular effect. It is something immediate, caught as if at a glance — the set of the features at that moment, the look of the eyes, the mouth, the planes of the face in that lighting, all having to do with circumstances then and there. Here is where the camera can catch valuable information. But before the camera clicks, the emotion and appearances all must be present — felt within the artist and transposed to the model, or existing in the model and recognized and caught by the artist. Then, through the whole effort, the artist feels the thing he wants to express, the thing that makes him want to say something with his pcncil or brush. Such feeling has a way of gelling into the technical expression, the handling of the medium. Sometimes the artist is not even conscious of it, but it still contributes to the success of the work, simply because the feeling is also conveyed to the spectator.
The study of clothing and drapery does much to atltl character, the hands, the shoes. The gesture, in correct spacing and drawing, docs its part, And yet gesture is really construction and contour, planes and values, A portrait sketch is about one hundred per cenl character, which means accurate spacing of features, planes, and contour. Character cannot be achieved without all the elements of good drawing- Real presentation of character lifts the artist to the top of his profession,
Finally we have the most important element of all, which is consistency. Consistency embraces much. Consistency is really truth, as recognised by that intelligent perception we all have, artist and layman alike. Consistency, tech-
nically, means that lighting, proportion, perspective are so handled ihnl all elements belong to one particular subject and no other. There is a consistency of purpose, when all things press home that purpose. There is a technical consistency of treatment, so thai all parts of the subject seem to be done by the same hand, in the same individual way. I do not mean that all surfaces should be handled as if made of the same material, or with the same kind of strokes, but that all parts have a unity of approach and vision which organizes the subject into a single
PROPORTION The tliree dimensions
PLACEMENT A position in space
Relationship of viewpoint to subject
Surface appearance as defined by light and shadow
The deliberate arrangement of the tones of the subject
CONCEPTION A rough indication of an idea
An attempt to establish the forms from life or from basic knowledge
The limits of forms in space, according to viewpoint
The specific qualities of individual units of your subject in light
All the essentials of construction, lighting, and pattern, organized as a unit expression. Lei us see the artist himself coming through his work — his feeling about it. his joy in doing it. If this is achieved, the work will never he considered imitation, for it is not an imitation. When we think of consistency, then, let us think of the unity of all the elements brought together into one whole effort. The artist won't go wrong when lie can see the big truths, or what lie feels to be the big truths. Tf he looks for the big planes, the big lights and shadows, the big values and relationships, he will do a better job. One can easily get lost in a lot of little truths without seeing the big ones. The leaf compared to the bulk and mass of the tree itself is the difference between big truths and little ones, or between big vision and eye-sigh t
Now lot us take stock of all these elements. You may have realized that we have now added five more, all beginning with C this time. They are conception, construction, contour, character, and consistency. So we have five P's and five C s — which should help you remember them. They are illustrated on pages IS and 19.
Kepeat the names of these elements over and over in your mind until you memorize them, for they will always be the guiding lights to successful drawing. We will not succeed with them all every time, nor will every single drawing be successful, but we can look at each drawing to see in how many of these elements the work qualifies. A drawing fails because of failure in one or more of the elements; analyzing it to find the sourcc of failure points to our errors and difficulties. Concentrating on these elements keeps us on our loes, and little by little our work improves. In our intelligent perception we have a guide to visual right and wrong as good as our sense of moral right or wrong — perhaps better. We can be taken in much more easily through our cars than through our eyes. Have the courage to believe in what you see, as you sec it, and to draw it that way, even if Jim Jones sees things another way. That is what makes each of you an artist. Art is certainly a mat ter of equal rights; nobody has a corner on it.
In organizing the material in the book, I have placed perspective first, because I believe it is easier to learn to handle line alone before getting into (lie complications of planes and tones, which are meaningless without dimension and perspective. In art schools, a subject is usually set up before us, and we simply have to draw what is there. But when we arc out on our own, the subject is usually not there. It is not too hard to draw a cube that is set up before us. But what we must learn is to draw an imaginary cube at any eye level, to fit into any set of circumstances. The importance of this will be understood when you know that almost any object may be drawn in perspective from a cube or block, since that represents the over all three dimensions of anything we draw. Even a sphere fits compactly into the cube. The cube or block may he thought of as the box that will fit around anything in the universe. Knowing the proper way to draw the block leads us right in at the front door of perspective, The building is the outside of the box. The interior is the inside, and we must know how to give it dimension and measurement, when those are needed. They usually are needed, if only to keep the figures on the floor, in proportion to the walls, doors, and furnishings. When buildings and figures occur in the same subject, wo need dimension and scalc.
It is simple to place a figure at any given spot on the Hoor or ground plane, in correct proportion to other figures, but over and over even high-ranking artists fail to achieve this, and the result is a bad job, as even John Hoe can sec. When different eye levels appear in a drawing, the artist Iilis probably failed to reconcile the inconsistencies in the various pieces of copy from which he is working. He may not even be aware of the inconsistency, but the people who see his work will have an uneasy feeling that something is wrong, though they do not know what When all is right the public really clucks over a tiling. When it is wrong they are usually just silent.
Anything we draw, no matter what it is, is affected by the eye level and viewpoint from which we draw it. The eye level is the horizon of the picture. It may be above or below the picture plane or may cross it at any point. We must know how to relate all forms and their contours to an eye level In a photograph, everything is related to the camera lens in the same way, but the artist cannot depend upon the camera, He must know perspective.
I personally believe an artist can develop a sound individuality in his work only if he knows how perspective, light, and shadow truly affect the basic forms. Then it is not too difficult to perceive the relationship of all other forms to the basic ones. The artist must know the difference in the quality of diffused light and dircct light and not mix the two within the same subject. So many artists get involved in tricky techniques, which are well and goncl if all else is in order but can cover up just so many sins and no more, Technique alone will not satisfy that intelligent perception of John Doe's, and if we want hi in to write to the magazines and say that he thinks our work is good, we can't depend on technique. Form is form, and in any particular lighting every plane in a picture must have its relative value, or the whole fails to convince. The wrong value means that the angle of the plane is not what it should be, and therefore the form is incorrect whether the contours are right or not.
Let us consider for a moment what made die great artists great. In almost every case they were masters of form, which means that they had to be masters of light on form. Light and form were no different then, The artist of the past had no clippings or cameras. They had to find out from life. By observation and study they learned truths which are .still staring us in the face, hut which we do not know or see, because we think an F.2 lens is going to take the whole heavy business off our shoulders. We actually have twenty times the opportunity to produce masterpieces that they had. We are not hoth-ered with making materials, or sketches, or studies from life. The truth is we are just not bothered. We are neither craftsmen nor contributors, The only legitimate excuse the artist of today has — and it's worn thin — is lack of time. But where is lack of time taking us?
To know is the surest way in the world to save time. An error in perspective can use up more lime than any artist lias. Bad planes and incor rect modeling can ruin a man's chances so fast that the time saved may be spent pounding sidewalks, When a painting or drawing stands as a great thing down through the years, with generation after generation of new spectators, I believe there is a positive reason, which means more than the name signed on the canvas. Those artists were great because they came so close to the truth of vision, because they had great understanding of nature and her ways. To stand before a Franz Hals is an experience. It is life, brought down through die years to you, The woman in the white cap and frilled collar is a living character, and we see her before us just as Hals saw her. She almost speaks. Through his vision and mastery we arc living iti a time before we were born. There is nothing we do not comprehend. No explanations are needed. We need know nothing of art to feel and appreciate the greatness of the work. I cannot believe that Franz Hals will ever be outmoded. Ilis works will be masterpieces as long as there arc people to see them and the paint and canvas hold together.
No man can successfully draw or paint a head until lie can render the surface of a sphere in light. If he cannot feel the relationship of the rounded forms of the head to the sphere or egg, the rendering will not have solidity. In the material in this book we apply the light on basic forms to the figure and the head. For a little fun, we even give solidity to comic drawings. It is possible to make even a comic seem to exist in light and shadow, with nothing hut imagination to work from.
The time that you spend practicing on essentials will not he wasted. Suppose you were asked to draw a series of columns, spaced 10 feet apart, set 0» cubes measuring 5 feet each way, with some figures standing at the second and fifth ct O
columns, and the bases of eight columns going hack in the distance. This is very simple if you know perspective. Which would take the most time, to hunt up such a building, take photographs, develop films, make prints, and set the
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pwr m assembly on a projector, or just to sit down and draw it? Almost dailv, lack of knowledge of sim-pie perspective can hack away a! an artist s time. The amount of motion and time which von save hy knowing how to solve your problems far exceeds any saving by the projector. The more you lean on vour crutches, the more vour strength
ebbs, and soon you cannot get along without them. No artist can ever save time by not being able to do for himself the things his camera does for him. Never let that camera get beyond being a source of information. No lens in the world is a real draftsman; that skill belongs to the artist himself.
Line draw ing and painting actually simplify and stress the basic relationship of the forms. The leg or torso is actually better as a cylindrical shape, with just enough anatomy to make it convincing, than as a photographic replica of every hump and hump of the muscles on it. We must learn to subordinate much of what the lens sees. We are really concerned more with light and shadow and bulk or mass than with what the camera can give us. Photographs with several light sources, which is the way most commercial photographs are made, defy every principle of good drawing. There is no authentic form in them; it has been broken up in meaningless light and shadow; and good drawing is essentially a statement of form.
1 should like the young artist, as he starts working on the material in this book, to consider, before discounting what nature has to offer, what it would be like to be blind. Think what light and form reallv mean to us. Things that seem so commonplace are really things of beauty. ■Strangely enough, when they arc well drawn they seem even more beautiful, for thev have
/ r been set apart from the endless multiplicity of nature. A good drawing of a thing can lie more interesting than (he thing itself, for it concentrates attention on aspects which the layman probably would not see. Flowers in a vase are beautiful, but seen with the painter's vision they can be even more beautiful, A head is just an other person to the layman until it is beautifully drawn or painted-
We have no lack of material. Plus all the tilings in nature, we have all the man-made things that have become a part of modem life. We have thousands and thousands of effects, so many worth setting down, so many worthy of studv. The artists of today wilJ all have had their j" ~ jf vesterdav l>ciorc too long. Some of von students
✓ / & j will be in their places. You will be living in the same sunlight they lived in, with all of nature now yours instead ol theirs. You will live among new names and faces but with the same kinds of people doing and thinking much the same things. To appeal to those people you will have to give them credit for intelligence, for awareness of life and nature. Crudity and distortion will not be any more appreciated fifty years hence than thev are now. If you can achieve jf *
truth, no man can discredit you.
I cannot believe that art devoid of fundamentals, structural knowledge, and some sort of beauty, can endure. Since we as human beings cannot do otherwise than live with nature and her laws, I wonder if art can do otherwise. I believe that the artists of the future will know much more about nature than we do, and that the knowledge will lead to greater art. Increasing understanding has led to the principles we use now, Iwct us attack the material before us with the feeling that additional knowledge can bring only added power.
Then: is little about pencil technique that can be taught, but it may he a help to the student to understand some of the things his pencil will do. I have always favored a soft pencil and do not like to use different grades or hardnesses within the same drawing. T like a large lead, s\ ;u-|)i.-md i" a long |x?int, ::apuhle of sl.injiilg considerable pressure. The point may he laid nearly flat on the paper by holding the pencil under the hand and using the arm and wrist rather than the lingers for the stroke. The tip of the point may be used for lines, such as out-
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