This is a simple but very valuable bit of working practical for such things as lettering in perspec-
knowledge, Any drawing or design can be tive, wall and floor designs, or placement of any squared off and projected in perspective on design in any flat plane of your subject, either a vertical or a horizontal plane. This is/ \
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TO LOCATE. POINT/ INTHe OÊ/ICN, LÊTTTIÎ.R. THE LI NÍJ" IN ONE DIRECTION AND NliMOttt THEM IM THE OTHfiR, THy/E3 if 1H F. CENTER OP CIRCLE.
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TO LOCATE. POINT/ INTHe OÊ/ICN, LÊTTTIÎ.R. THE LI NÍJ" IN ONE DIRECTION AND NliMOttt THEM IM THE OTHfiR, THy/E3 if 1H F. CENTER OP CIRCLE.
HORIION
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Any design can be repeated in perspective. ■ Simply square off the design. The squares serve as guide lines for the points to be followed. By laying out such points on the squares, you can readily approximate the position of the points on the divided rectangle in perspective. Draw diagonals to repeat the blocks.
HORIZONTAL PROJECTION
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The ground plane is always considered as a level plane, have their vanishing points on that hori-
plane stretching out to the horizon. All other zon, Inclined planes vanish ahove or below the level planes, or planes parallel to the ground horizon.
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Drawing roofs is a problem to one who does not know perspective. A roof, being an inclined plane with two edges parallel to the ground, has two vanishing points, The edges parallel to the ground plane vanish on the horizon at the van ishing point of the building. The inclined edges vanish above or below the horizon on a vertical line drawn through the vanishing point of the building. Many artists do not know this.
¡tout és drcuo a roof correctly.
Drawing roofs is a problem to one who does not know perspective. A roof, being an inclined plane with two edges parallel to the ground, has two vanishing points, The edges parallel to the ground plane vanish on the horizon at the van
¡tout és drcuo a roof correctly.
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The pyramid and similar forms are exceptions to the general rule, in that they have no vanishing points except those for the base lines. A conical form has no vanishing points except those for the block inside which the form is constructed. We must always build such forms from a block in corrcct perspective, since there is no other way to relate them to the horizon.
We must nil dors tan d that inclined planes do not vanish at the eye level or on the picture horizon. The horizon has only to do with level planes and planes with edges parallel to the level
In the drawing above, the road descends and then rises over a hillside. It then appears to drop over a crest into a valley below. This is accomplished by drawing the road in sections, each ground plane. This is confusing to the average student. Ascending planes always vanish above the horizon. Descending planes always vanish helow the horizon. Try to remember this.
with a different vanishing point. As the angle of each section changes, the vanishing points are raised, then dropped, to follow the contours of the ground plane.
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The problem of drawing a downgrade in perspective becomes simple onoe yon know the basic principle. A downgrade has its vanishing point below the horizon in a perpendicular line drawn through the vanishing point of the level planes. Note that there arc two horizons. The upper one is the "true horizon." The lower one, not being an eye level, is a "false horizon."
Since the roofs and floors of buildings arc built on level planes, they vanish in a point on the level horizon. The sloping planes vanish in a "false horizon," above or below the ground level.
The "true horizon" is always at eye level. Note that figures on the hill have been scaled to the lower horizon since they are affected by the slope.
For an upgrade view, the perspective principle is the opposite of that for a downgrade, in that the false horizon is above the true horizon. The
The roofs, floors, windows, base lines, and all other level planes vanish in a point on the true horizon. Any plane that is a part of the slope vanishes in the point above on the false horizon. As before, the figures are scaled to the horizon of the slope since they are stationed on an in-
vanishing point of the slope falls on a vertical line drawn through the vanishing point on the true horizon.
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