Cyooddramx efres olft a sercJc orsiMjoe basic forms

(a)¿¿A i/te ¡pane form ef/ai/csAecL coe c&K ¿/test bucldok ¿Jt£ surface forces.

7Jte/t, s/rcce otz/^ lijfdcan defuse fortt(t cue pfawistudy carefully co/tal¿/¿e /¿yM does as ¿ffrare/s across f/te surfaces, HotcH^fke ¿zr-easa^lcqfcfs kaffdotos CZttol sAezclocd. ^

lines or contours, and the flat side for shading or grays. For the effcet, see page 24. The drawings in this book were done with the Eagle Pencil Company's Prismacolor Black 395 to obtain good blacks for reproduction, since all dots on a line cut must be black.

Different papers give different effects. The paper used for these drawings was Coqnille Board, a grainy paper meant for this kind of reproduction.

There are also carbon pencils, crayons, charcoal, anything you want. Drawing is drawing in any medium; select the one you like best. You can buy large pads of layout bond paper, which is not Loo thin and transparent. Get a box of kneaded rubber, or the plastic type of eraser. The pencils 1 have used do not erase readily, so for a while it might be best to stick to the regular graphite or lead pencils.

My only suggestion as to the technical use of the pencil is to try to avoid scratchy, small, and thin-lined strokes for your grays and blacks. They persist in looking amateurish and fussy or furry instead of suggesting an area of tone.

To do the perspective problems, you will need a fairly wide drawing board, a T square, and a triangle, You need not get a complete set of drawing instruments unless you intend t<i ink in your drawings, A pair of dividers and a pencil compass will suffice. Any ruler will do when working to scale.

The problems of lighting on form can best be solved by working from life. If you must work at night, any artificial light on your subject will give you the effect you want. However, keep the light simple, using one source. Draw anything you wish for practice — some old shoes, some pottery, some vegetables, fruits, pots and pans, hollies, bric-a-brac, toys, books, dolls, anything at all. It is all form with light on it, and all present interesting problems.

To keep your practice from getting too boring, perhaps one evening at perspective can be followed by an evening of drawing from life or copying some of the drawings in this book. Try once in a while to draw real people — some member of your family will pose for you. Spend an evening with comics — they are fun to do. There is plenty of material all about you. Do not try to make masterpieces, just sincere studies. Save your work for later comparison.

To learn to draw is to draw and draw and draw.

Note: If you wish to copy any of the drawings shown here, for practice, you may do so, However, since the book is copyrighted, no part of it may be copied for reproduction or sale.

Perspective Drawing The Manikin

'Hiere ¿sAiddett perspective

Perspective the Artist Should Know

The pages of this book that are devoted to perspective should not be considered a side issue by anyone who is seriously interested in drawing. It may he hard to see the connection between planes and vanishing points and the kind of drawing you wish to do. But there is a definite connection, for anything you draw is related to a horizon and vanishing points, even though it is not always necessary to draw them. If you intend to make a living at drawing, by all means learn these things now, and do not have them bothering you and your work for the rest of your life. Even if you are drawing only as a hobby, the knowledge will enable you to do much better work. Remember that anything can he drawn within the cube or block. Even though you don't draw the actual block, you must feel the perspective relationship of the figure or object as it would be within a block,

Experiment with real drawing by drawing a thing first with blocks. See how much more real construction you get into it. You will later see the tie-up between lighting and perspective, which are much more closely related than the average artist realizes.

Art students arc as prone to underestimate the value of the study of perspective as music stu dents are to underestimate the need of practicing scales, Both foundations are necessary, fn drawing, the eye is as important as is the ear in music. Musicians who play only by ear arc never as accomplished as those who can also read music. Similarly, an artist can draw by eye alone, but he will never draw as well as one who knows fundamental perspective. The handicap is unnecessary in either case. Since the knowledge is available, why try lo struggle along without it? The difficulties of not knowing arc always much greater than the effort of learning.

The problems in this section are not child's play. They require considerable Application. But the time and effort required to digest this material thoroughly will pay dividends throughout your whole career. Although many of the important principles are presented here, space obviously does not permit complete coverage in a book of this kind, and I cannot possibly answer personal letters 011 problems of perspective. I urge you, therefore, to supplement this book with some good texts on perspective. A simple one to understand is Perspective Made Easy by Ernest Norling; you will find others in bookstores and art stores. No subject is more worthy of the artist's study.

Let us start with the beginning of all good drawing, proportion and dimension. The square with its equal dimensions is extremely important, as the following pages show. From the square we

The drawing above shows the square laid flat 011 the ground. All ground plans begin with this. We can now build the Cube on the square. The sides of the cube are divided like the squares at the top of the page, but now are shown in per-

can construct nearly all other forms in perspective. The square is a basic means of measurement. We must first learn to divide the square.

Beginning Drawing Measurement Exercises

vpr speetivc. In the drawing above there is some distortion because the vanishing points had to be placed a little too close in order to show them both on the page. Try drawing some cubes correctly.

Wi-ira I ^OfM L1H

Wi-ira I ^OfM L1H

OIACONAL5 ON THE JQUAflE; FLAT J"Q<JARE:

THfc DIVfDED CU6E

OIACONAL5 ON THE JQUAflE; FLAT J"Q<JARE:

THfc DIVfDED CU6E

fi'pcce a//objects cut.// fit tn6o a. ¿ax, ¿oe ¿kus^ fcttoev Aoco ¿o eor^rfru^¿be cuMe or ¿/o a A. i/t jperspecii ve. /¿towttcydie overct/f </ttt£eKSi0*t.r c/ajty object, use coKj-i-yiAct tu/ticA äooa/d/ fc6 izr-aufu/¿t. 7/teu ose bui/d ike. objec6(¿¿¿¡an d. Evex. roundobjedr ft6 iJcs cuMe or b/ocA. ~/o </nsuo -¿be cube, «je esbttbf/sA <z Jtonzort (or <?ye/e.ws/Janxf iuso voJctskci<<^ potties. ¿J//jcc/sj- o/¿be ettbes recede -¿oY/ttrc/ Ü<&re v&suskm^ powth.

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