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To draw a circle in perspective, we first lay out a divided square. We draw the arcs around the four sides, making the stcs cut just short of the halfway points between A and B. Now by drawing ellipses on the top and bottom sides of a cube or block, we construct a cylinder in perspective. The vanishing points for a small object should be spaced wide apart. For large objects, they can be spaced cli>ser.

The cone is built on the circle in perspective, and the circle in perspective is of course constructed within the square- Many objects are built with the cone as the basic form, such as the wine glass, horn, etc.

Objects Perspective Drawing
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Later you will draw freehand, but at first, when you are learning the basic principles of drawing, you will always need a straight-edge to get cor rect perspective. So get a T square and a triangle and make all the lines true and straight. Careless drawing is the sure sign of the amateur.

Since a circle fits within a square, a sphere will fit within a cube. First divide the cube, then draw the eircle plan in perspective horizontally across the middle section of the cube (Fig. L).

Then draw the circle plan on the upright diagonal planes. The length of these planes is determined by the perimeter of the horizontal circle.

Circle Plan

THE CIRCLE PLAN

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FIGUR E TWO 7HE CfRCLE Pf-ÄN LAID ON ALL PLANES Tnus PROOUCirtC A QJ V i DEO JPHERE.

TWO lNTePUeCTlN(7 CIRCLET WITHIN A fPHERE

riGURE ONE.

FIGUR E TWO 7HE CfRCLE Pf-ÄN LAID ON ALL PLANES Tnus PROOUCirtC A QJ V i DEO JPHERE.

TWO lNTePUeCTlN(7 CIRCLET WITHIN A fPHERE

THE CIRCLE PLAN

TKE ORAWfNO BELOW -SHOW/ THE ClftCLEPLfiN LAID OUrON THE MI!>■ HORIZONTAL AND ONE OF WE PIACONAL PlAHEf riGURE ONE.

When the circle plan has been laid out on the mid-horizontal plane as well as on all vertical planes which pass through the vertical axis, a perfectly divided sphere will result. The contour of a sphere never changes, though the lines of division arc affected by perspective (Fig, 2),

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What is true of the cube and the sphere is also true of any elongated block that will fit around any rounded form. Any such form can be drawn in accurate perspective by using this basic approach. First draw plans of the middle planes of the block.

Plans Mid Horn

The drawings here indicate the soundness of this approach to good drawing. The whole principle of perspective drawing is to enable the draftsman to get at the inner construction and to relate all sections or parts to a single viewpoint. The mechanic builds from plans which are cross sections through the object. These are usually flat plans like the two at the top of this page. Having such plans, we can draw them to a horizon and vanishing points, showing the object in three dimensions.

The circle and the block can be applied in drawing many different objects« If you can draw the block in perspective, you can draw almost any object in any position within your subject-Draw the block to equal the height, width, and depth of the form.

Howto Drawthe Illusion TriangleDrawing Ellipses Perspective

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HOW TO CONSTRUCT THE BLOCK CORRECTLY

In case you are having trouble in drawing blocks correctly, the drawings below will help you. Remember that ellipses narrow as they near the eye level. Studying a real object will help you approximate this. The perspective depth* of the top side of the block determines the perspective depth of the bottom side.

Perspective Depth

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Here are two ways of constructing blocks of ceding page. In the one on the right, we cstab-

specified dimensions. In the drawing at the left, lish a measuring line touching the near corner, the dimensions are laid out on the middle line then carry the units to the base line, or axis, using the procedure shown on the pre-

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Drawing Fundamentals
PLANE Of= THE SLOCK

When you can produce a block of specified dimensions, you have the basis for drawing any objcct accurately. You arc urged to practice this until you can do it, because it is a procedure that you will nae for the rest of your life. We progress from this to other methodsoi measurement in perspective.

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