Drawing Fundamentals

Using a Manikin for the Study of Anatomy

Anatomy Drawing

The best way to study anatomy is to set up a book of anatomical diagrams before you, and set up an art-Store manikin alongside it. Draw tlie action from the manikin and the muscles from the book. You can also make rough sketches of the manikin itself for general bulk and action only, Just copying anatomical diagrams does not seem very helpful to most students. The muscles must somehow be built upon a frame or figure in order to get their proportion and relationship to the figure as a whole. The...

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Figur Anatomi

To draw a circle in perspective, we first lay out a divided square. We draw the arcs around the four sides, making the stcs cut just short of the halfway points between A and B. Now by drawing ellipses on the top and bottom sides of a cube or block, we construct a cylinder in perspective. The vanishing points for a small object should be spaced wide apart. For large objects, they can be spaced cli gt ser. The cone is built on the circle in perspective, and the circle in perspective is of course...

Light un the Basic For ins

Determine Cast Shadow Sphere

When the artist leaves the study of line and seeks to combine light and shadow, Construction and contour, ho steps into i new world. IT is drawings begin to take on a quality of existence, for through light and shadow we delineate form, and all the visible world is only light on form. lkit nature, until her ways and laws arc understood, can seem so complex as to be almost overpowering. Usually her forms arc surfaced with endless variations of texture, and the relationship of her forms, as well...

Light On The Basic Forms

Light Source And Shadow Drawing

Light and shadow are sharply defined and positive. Oil sphere B, the modeling is very gradual with no sharp definition. The lighting on A is characteristic of sunlight or direct artificial lights that on B of light from the sky without direct sunlight on the object, or of the popular indirect or diffused lighting. The difference in these effects must be taken into consideration by the artist. The whole pic-tine should have the effect of one or the other. If one thing casts a shadow, all things...

Perspective In The Figure

Perspective Figure Drawing

No matter how much you know of anatomy and the cons true lion of the figure, you will not be abJe to draw figures from imagination until you can relate the different parts of the figure to a horizon or eye level. Sometimes it is helpful to think of the various forms as they would appear as blocks square instead of round. Then round them out. vres ox. Hu-spo e are dradn. o - At A-or-izox gt e ow Perspective ajiii foot ieacL tjoiL ko lo drauJ Ike figure, bul you cast never draw d tuiikoai...

Simple Projection In Perspective

Fundamentals Perspective

Here is a very simple method of projecting dimensions and spacings in perspective. The top drawing shows the front and side elevations of a house. The dimensions of these create a vertical and a horizontal scale. The horizontal spac ings are projected to the base lines by means of two measuring points. The vertical spacings arc transferred to the vertical scale of the perspective drawing and projected to the vanishing points. firs c raw Ae fro et attcf S tYe e eva. amp OHf ofajbaiM Hq oftzfcy...

Complex Forms In Light

Halftones Lights Portrait

Careful study of this page will reveal tlie fact that any type of surface form can be rendered by duplicating the effect of light and shadow as they occur across that form. Every material or surface has a characteristic effect at any given moment. Every effect is made up of light, halftone, and shadow. If we study the subject and can define those elements clearly and can then fit them properly within the contours, we will have re-created ihc form and also die effect of die material of which it...

Common Errors In Perspective

Fundamentals Perspective Drawing

Distortion results from having both vanishing points within the field of vision, or too close to the object. If the object has a right angle at the near comer, the base lines must make an angle greater than a right angle on the drawing, since a right angle can not be represented by anything less than a right angle. The drawing below shows tills common error. I'tutwA inffce jm ftc ffoifti a , tej amp nte Aotixotc. Too few artists follow the simple plan of project- to scale any vertical unit or...

The Rule for Scaling Figures on the Ground Plane

Perspective Picture Plane

All figures of the same height, when standing the horizon at the same vertical point on the on the same ground plane, will be crossed by figure, When we know that an inclined plane has a horizon and vanishing points which are used in the same manner as those of a level plane, seal-ing figures on an inclined plane becomes much simpler. So long as the entire plane has the same slant, the perspective is worked out in the manner shown in the diagram below. The diagram shows all the necessary...

Looking a way from the Light Source

Shadows Following Ground Contours

The angle of light is determined by lines drawn to a point placed directly below the vanishing point of shadows. Any object may be squared off in the way shown in the picture of the tree at the right above and the squares projected to the ground plane. If you consider the tree as a flat design in a squared-off block, the contours of the tree arc projected to the ground plane. These define the shadow.