V

At least 1 vanishing point should be included

Optically judged subdivision

11.8 Example: Perspective of an Entrance with Two Vanishing Points

The proportions of the awning, retaining wall, and plant tub are then indicated with a little concentration. Only the width proportions are plotted. With a little contemplation we must now try to imagine where the vanishing points lie left and right on the horizon. The precise points can be checked by drawing vanishing lines above and below the ho rizon and always to the same point. If the vanishing point lies off the page, then the vanishing line: will have to be inserted approximately, bearing in mind that foreshortenings can only be proportionately as big as they recede into the depth of the picture (indicated here by fifths)

Once the basic construction is in place we can begin to insert the shadows; added expression and detail is achieved by drawing in materials and environment

12.0 Drawing Terrain

In Figure 12.1 there are certain characteristics that are immediately apparent: the impression of great depth and the associated difference in the quality of drawing of things near and far, the representation of solids with simple lines without any special emphasis on shade or cast shadow, the topography suggested by sloping lines, the indication of mountain ridges by running these lines together, the suggestion of water without any indication of waves or water surface.

Here again we can see that light and very light areas on the drawing plane should be left untouched and white.

With this type of drawing it is also important for the lines to be flowing and continuous, even at the risk of allowing minor inaccuracies to creep in. When representing contour lines (easily recognizable here as stone retaining walls), one should remember that the vanishing points of parallel walls always lie on the horizon, a fact that should make it easier to arrange the walls with their vanishing points in natural fashion.

As has been stated before, the outlines of more distant objects should never touch those of objects that are more close-up this is clearly seen from the mountain ridges.

Only those stones located in the immediate foreground are accurately drawn, with their shade suggested by accompanying contours beneath and to one side instead of a detailed shading. The size of the stones diminishes rapidly with increasing pictorial depth: only simple outlines are used to represent the stones in middle ground, while in the background they become just crinkly lines that eventually tail off into single lines in the very far distance. The ground between the stone walls can

Dessin Champs Imprimer

Figure 15

be given a degree of character in tfie foreground by suggested irregularities (holes, pits, etc ); but as picture depth increases there is no need for precise soil features. In middle ground, a few dots and short strokes are perfectly adequate, while beyond these the areas are best left plain. Even so we still give the impression that these areas are actually land rather than sea or sky.

Unfortunately it is not every day that we come across a scene as in this example. Still, in any drawing it is essential to look for and find successful ways of representing spatial sequences, juxtapositions, and superimpositions.

When selecting a particular subject scene and deciding which surfaces are to be darkened by more lines—and hence emphasized—it is once again advisable to half close the eyes for a few moments. The resulting blurred impression will help you to pick out the differing degrees of darkness and also confirms what we stated at the outset— that drawing means simplifying.

An example of explanatory sketching in construction drawings steel balustrade with steel rope stressing

13.0 Drawing Plants

Figure 13 3

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