Perspective Drawing Of Staircase

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Figure 10 4 y

Drawing the first vanishing lines 1 A I

10.1.5 Vanishing Lines

The next step is to indicate the vanishing lines to the main point. Once all vanishing lines have been inserted it will be possible to outline the entire canopy on the strength of these new reference points and the estimated length and height of the canopy, which vanishes to the main point. We now draw in the spatial dimension, the step and grid for scraping off muddy shoes

We should stress here that the utmost care and attention should be devoted to receding lengths. Lengths and widths are almost always far too large, especially in the work of beginners Take a look at the side wall of your room from where you are now standing or sitting and see just how wide the doors appear in the wall along which you are looking: they actually are very narrow but are frequently drawn far too wide.

And so it is with many other things which are foreshortened by perspective. If you are still uncertain about judging foreshortened lengths, we suggest that you plot and measure the various parts of the apparent image with outstretched arm. Parts that lie parallel to the drawing and picture plane in central perspective appear bigger.

Another point, though obvious, is worth mentioning: your drawing standpoint must never vary while you prepare your freehand drawing, i.e., there must be no change in standing or sitting position. Similarly, the eyes must always follow the same sightline. Deviations in standpoint or sight-line will immediately falsify the illustration

Dimensions and spaces in the drawn parts should be checked now and again for correct proportions.

Light And Sun Perspective Drawing
Figure 10.6

10.1.6 Shadow Cast by Sun or Artificial Light

Shadows cast by the sun or artificial light can be added to the drawing for extra three-dimensional impression, but beware of too many contrasting effects. It can be awkward if persons viewing the picture get the feeling that you are using shadow to conceal weaknesses or design defects or to attract particular attention to yourself. Later additions to a drawing should also be avoided; under no circumstances should large shadows be added afterward to "improve" clarity.

One common error is to draw the sun shining from the north or to provide northerly views with deep shadows. This mistake can be avoided through exact reproduction of the scene or, if necessary, by verifying the correct geographical references (points of the compass).

Much patience is needed to determine shadows in very good drawings. Professional photographers often wait for hours for the sun to reach the right position before taking a shot of some architectural views. This indicates that the position of the light source and the arrangement of shadows is very important. With drawing of course we have rather more freedom than a photographer, and so it is permissible to compare the various possible shadow positions in rough-sketch form (shadow length and width) to find the most suitable optical location. The shadow must in any event be correctly constructed and as true to life as possible.

10.1.7 Shade

A further complement is the representation of shade on all solids and surfaces. Surfaces turned away from the light always appear darker, and a light tone of gray can be achieved by very light hatching; shading can also be shown by the clear representation of structure, texture, or facture on the surface which is lying in shade.

10.1.8 Details and Marginal Areas

Details and marginal areas must be drawn in full whenever a drawing or sketch is passed on for information or intended for wider publication. But here again, the principle should be "all things in moderation," since an excess of subsidiary information will detract from clarity in even the best drawings. Surfaces should therefore be filled out completely only in the rarest instances. It is often enough for the margins of a given area to be well drawn or suggested; the eye will provide its own infill for the residual bright areas.

We stated at the beginning that drawing can also mean leaving out much or all—extraneous matter. Our deliberate description of the various steps in the creation of a freehand drawing has meant that the final step in this example has been drawn in full detail Normally, however, an excess of detail can be fatiguing for the spectator.

Do you remember the individual steps?

Figures 10 2 through 10 7 reproduced in series.

10.2 Some More Examples

10.2.1 A Street Curving A way out of Sight

This example is based on the assumption that the street continues on the same level. As can be seen from the indicated vanishing lines and van ishing points, all vanishing points lie on the horizon, which is determined by the sightline All perpendicular lines remain vertical. With its parallel ground and roof edges, each building has its own vanishing point depending on its place in the street. With a little observation you should find this type of street scene, particularly in old towns. The charm of the picture lies in the sweep of the ground and roof lines and in the diagonals.

Figure 10.8

Sweeping House Roof Line

Deflected Vanishing Point


- various vanishing points (of the various buildings)

Drawing Perspective Landscapes Roads
.gure 10 9

10.2.2 A Road Climbing Upward and A way

A more complex picture, this. Basically speaking, we first divide up all sections of road and landscape into rectangles and then identify the horizons and vanishing points of these existing and theoretical rectangles. Since the road climbs slowly away into the distance the vanishing points of the assumed road levels must also climb, one after the other. With drawings like this one must always ensure that the image is within the normal field of vision and that it is always viewed horizontally. In this particular example the observer's standpoint lies somewhat higher above the foremost level (at foot of picture) than would normally be possible.

10.2.3 A Staircase Leading Upward

In the same way as Figure 10.9, Figure 10.10 shows an outside staircase of a castle drawn from an elevated observer standpoint. The particular effect here is that the staircase leads from beneath the horizon line upward above the horizon line.

Perspective Staircase Drawing
F:gure 10 11 shows a simpler staircase going upward
How Draw Stair Freehand
Figure 10.11

10.2.4 A Staircase Leading Downward (Page 108)

It might at first appear as if this could not be drawn at all or that the vertical walls and lines should not be drawn parallel to each other. The fact is that the frontal perspective, horizontal sight-line, theoretical horizon, vertical walls and lines can all be drawn just as before. When deciding on picture size and sightline, however, it is vital to ensure that the finished drawing will be within the field of vision.

The vanishing points of inclined and level surfaces will always lie on the vertical line that is drawn perpendicular through the main point (the breakthrough point between sightline and picture plane). All other perspective constructions can be done in accordance with the principles already discussed. It isn't much more difficult to draw down staircases which turn left or right.

Figure 10.12

Longitudinal section through staircase.

Longitudinal section through staircase.

Vanishing Point Stair CaseVanishing Point Stair CaseDrawing Freehand Stairs Perspective

10.2.6 A Staircase Leading Upward

Unlike the down staircases, our constructions and images now drift above the horizon line. All vanishing points once again converge on the vertical line through the main point.

Free Hand Perspactive Views

11.0 Angle Views with Two Vanishing Points

11.1 Constructing a Perspective with Two Vanishing Points

This type of perspective has two vanishing points. As we view the edge of a cube from an angle, the top and bottom lines of the left hand face of the cube converge upon the left-hand vanishing point and those of the right-hand face converge upon the right-hand vanishing point (both vanishing points are on the horizon). The picture plane is again perpendicular to the sightline and can be located at any desired depth in three-dimensional space.

11.2 Sightline and Picture Plane

The size of the picture plane and its distance from the observing eye determine which portion of the overall view the observer wishes to draw The distances between picture plane and the sides of solid bodies are always different. For a more outstanding picture we usually select a variety of different angles between picture plane and obiect sides. Symmetry in the arrangement of the two vanishing points is not beneficial or particularly expressive.

11.3 Main Point H

The main point H is the target of the main sight line and determines the breakthrough of the line of vision through the picture plane All the horizontal lines of a rectangular grid will find their vanishing points on the left or right of the horizon. All true vertical lines in perspective will also appear vertical in the drawing.

11.4 Horizon

The horizon (circle of vision) lies all around us at eye level, and so should be shown in this way in the drawing.

All-around Horizon

All-around Horizon

Figure 11.2
Figure 11.3

Figure 11.4

11.5 Field of Vision

As we have already said, the eyes can only see sharply within 15 to 25 degrees around the central line of vision. If a particular object is perceived to be outside the field of vision, you must shift your standpoint or change your sightline, in which case the previous line of vision disappears since it can

Image Plane

Right-hand vanishing point unattainable' g

11.6 Eye Level

As with frontal perspective, the eye level should be taken as 1 6 meters above ground level (Fig. 11.4).

Image Plane

Right-hand vanishing point unattainable' g

only be used for one and the same drawing. The objects which are to be drawn must always be kept within the field of vision (Fig. 11.3).

11.6 Eye Level

As with frontal perspective, the eye level should be taken as 1 6 meters above ground level (Fig. 11.4).

11.7 Distance and Standpoint

In perspective with two vanishing points, the distance between the eye of the observer/ draftsman and the picture plane is important insofar as the vanishing points move outward to left or right as the distance increases. So much so in fact that the vanishing points are difficult or even impossible to locate.

This can be overcome by bringing the standpoint closer to the object (reduction of distance D1 to D2—Fig. 11.5). although this

Impossible Room Drawing

Figure 11.6

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