Elevation/Distant View

Elevation/Distant View

8.3 3 Eye Level

By eye level we mean the distance between ground or floor level and the height of the observer's eyes. On the average, people standing or walking have an eye level of between 1.6 and 1.7 meters. When a drawing is to include people as well as things, their heads must be on the same level irrespective of whether they are in the foreground or in the background. Since all vanishing points are always on the horizon (at eye level) the first priority is to draw in the horizon line.

Ground Plan/Layout

8.3.4 Distance

An impression of depth and scale is also achieved by putting people in the foreground and middle ground of the picture.

The "distance" in this case is that between the eye (standpoint) and the picture plane. In order for an image in a drawing to look more or less real, the observer should, in theory, be the same dis tance from the drawn object as the draftsman himself when executing his drawing.

8.3.5 Drawing Density. Depth. and Outlines Close-Up

Things close to us are always clearly visible and must therefore be drawn more precisely and with more detail. As depth in picture and space in-

Diagonal Vanishing Point

Hori/on

Squares

Square

Figure 8 5 Guidelines in Frontal Perspective, also Using a Second Vanishing Point (diagonal vanishing point)

Hori/on

Diagonal Vanishing Point

Squares

Square

Figure 8 5 Guidelines in Frontal Perspective, also Using a Second Vanishing Point (diagonal vanishing point)

Vanishing Points of Hoof Pitches

Square

Arc Contact

Diagonal Vanishing Point on Horizon

Floorboards (as an example)

creases, so clarity and sharpness of outlines diminishes, as does light and color intensity; this means that as spatial depth increases, all objects must be drawn lighter (both in weight and color) and with thinner lines, otherwise the illustration will lose all credibility as a representation of reality. The outlines of objects shown at different depths should never run into each other but should end at a distance from images that are close-up.

Figure 8.6 Diagonal Vanishing Point £p jjf

8.3.6 Foreground—Middle Ground-

Background—Picture Depth—Contours

Illustrations of spaces of great depth can be divided into the following areas of perceptibility and reproducibility: foreground, middle ground, and background. A proper grasp and understanding of strong and weak optical impressions makes it possible to achieve the appearance of varying depth by graphic devices. If you are not sure of drawing the correct outlines or shadows, it is worthwhile partly closing the eyes for a second in order to determine the really essential outlines with strong contrasts. One should start by drawing the essentials.

If there is still some doubt about three-dimensional drawing, we suggest the following method as a temporary aid to attain more feeling for freehand, spatial drawing: select a drawing that you admire and trace it line by line. You should of course take a critical look at each line and its meaning. For instance, ask yourself why a line is at a particular place or why the line is of a particular quality.

One should in any case beware of mindless copy ing in freehand drawing.

Whenever light plays a part in the spatial illustration of frontal perspective- which is often the case—it will be necessary to draw shade in order to enhance three-dimensional effect. Shade covers those surfaces which belong to the illuminated solids but which are actually averted from the light incidence. These surfaces lie in shade.

Figure 8 8

8.3.8 Cast Shadow in Frontal Perspective

Since edges that run completely parallel to the picture plane or that run away to a vanishing point cast shadows, the shadows of those edges must in consequence also be drawn parallel to the picture plane or back toward the vanishing point. The shadow is cast according to the position of the sun or light source. If for instance the sun is facing us, we can insert it into the picture plane (above the horizon line) simply by drawing the perpendicular from the theoretical sun down to the horizon line; we then locate the vanishing point for the shadow line and so obtain simple vanishing lines for the outline of the shadow. If the sun is behind us, we just have to assume a theoretical solar point below the horizon line and proceed accordingly.

Figuro 8 9

Special Case—Cast shadow on glazed surfaces:

Depending on the direction of illumination, glazed areas appear as light or dark surfaces on buildings seen from the outside, and must be drawn accordingly. As a general rule, in a very brightly lit facade the windows appears as dark areas (almost hole-like). A similar approach applies to a glazed area or window only partly lit by the sun and which thus lies partly in shadow.

Figure 8 11

Special Case—Bright edges:

Another interesting case is the marking of the brightest-lit edges through the partial omission of their outline When observing the picture, the eye completes the object for itself and only perceives form and brightness. As a rule these are drawings of very familiar everyday objects.

Another interesting case is the marking of the brightest-lit edges through the partial omission of their outline When observing the picture, the eye completes the object for itself and only perceives form and brightness. As a rule these are drawings of very familiar everyday objects.

Original Sue 21 » 30 cm

Figure 8.15 Black Silhouette

Original Sue 21 » 30 cm

Figure 8.13 Brightly Lit Edges

Figure 8.14 White Silhouette

Figure 8.15 Black Silhouette

Special Case- Silhouette in front of dark and light background:

Two special cases resulting from very marked differences in brightness from sunlight or artificial light are the silhouette in extreme counter light (sunlight) and its counterpart, namely the illustration of a brightly illuminated object against a darker background (night or storm clouds, etc.).

8.3 9 Reflections

Reflection—Minor on Wall (vertical mirror ylanc)

8.3 9 Reflections

Mirrors produce a true to life image turned about the mirror's axis; in other words, the mirror's surface reproduces things in their natural dimensions and distances in relationship to the given plane of the mirror.

Please note that a scene and its mirror image have a common vanishing point.

As unlovely as symmetry so often is. it cannot be ignored in mirror images. In this example the mirror's surface is the surface of the water. All di mensions and lengths are taken from the real objects and then "folded" through the given mirror plane to make the mirror images.

Reflection on Water (horizontal mirror plane)

Drawn

Actual

A Object

A Mirroi Image

Water = Mirror Surface

9.0 Central Perspective (Frontal Perspective) as the Likeness of an Object

9.1 Drawing Paper—Format—Detail

One important step in any introduction to this subject is the selection of a simple, see-at-a-glance motif. The picture's horizon plane as seen by the eye should also be horizontal in real life, so never draw with a falling sightline! When drawing, you should be at a distance from the drawn object that corresponds to the size of your drawing paper Hold up the paper with arm outstretched in the sightline. then "take bearings" over the edges of the paper to see whether the particular detail you wish to draw has the right size and proportions. From what we have already said in previous sections, it is clear that we can fix a particular scale for the picture on the basis of our fixed standpoint and given length with our outstretched arm. Hold up the drawing paper once again and note the horizon line or. alternatively, hold up your pencil in the line of sight to find an exact location for the horizon. The next step is to mark the vanishing point; in central perspective this is the meeting point for all vanishing lines in the distance. We can now proceed with the remaining steps just as confidently, provided we think about them calmly: drawing the horizon, the first frontal upright surfaces and solids—as well as their vanishing lines.

Field of vision

Drawing Plane

Person observing and drawing

Horizon for the person drawing

Main pomt for the person drawing jawing

Figure 9 1

Drawing Area Object and Likeness

Anglo of vision

Horizon in drawing

Figure 9 1

Field of vision

Original Sue 48 * 34 cm

Drawing Area Object and Likeness

Main pomt for the person drawing jawing

Horizon for the person drawing

Anglo of vision

Drawing Plane

Person observing and drawing

### Horizon in drawing uetan

A small trick may assist when selecting the detail you wish to draw. Cut out a frame from heavy-grade paper or card of suitable size that fully encloses the finished picture format. Hold it out at arm's length and use it to find your exact motif. Make a mental note of reference points such as horizon level and left-hand or right-hand edge so that you will always be able to find the detail again.

Figure 9.2

Figure 9.2

When choosing a horizon level for designed objects—i.e.. objects which do not as yet exist in reality -one should be skeptical; the first solution does not necessarily make for the best likeness. Different horizon levels will of course produce different views of one and the same object.

Figure 9.3

9.2 Object Arrangement

Figure 9.3

Symmetry7

When drawing a building by itself it should not necessarily be right in the middle of the drawing. The resulting symmetry is boring in most cases.

For the majority of outdoor architectural drawings the horizon can lie on the line of the bottom third, which leaves the top two-thirds of the drawing area available for the sky.

Symmetry7

If the building is located more to one side or another, a sense of imbalance may soon form in the mind of the observer.

This visual disequilibrium can be remedied by placing a counterbalancing detail from the foreground or with other objects (trees, etc.).

9.3 Dimensions and Guidelines

9.4 Proportions

Rough Sketch v

Figure 9 5

Hurried Attempts

Walking Around the Object

Students are often afraid of drawing the wrong sizes onto the picture plane. This can be overcome by measuring off individual lengths and dimensions in thumb widths (outstretched arm) or in fractions of the length of the drawing pencil The main outlines should always be drawn before concentrating on the details, even if the latter are technically perfect and beautifully executed. To start with one should draw guidelines—they are nothing to be ashamed of and should be left as working aids. Hasty erasing or correcting will hardly improve the quality of the drawing.

Figure 9 5

### Hurried Attempts

Basically one should first look at an object from all sides and try to grasp its character, structure, design, purpose, and content, and then begin to reproduce on paper what one sees It is vital to memorize height and width proportions.

Rough Sketch v

Walking Around the Object

### 9.5 The Whole Drawing

Here again, a little trick can help: look at the object carefully for proportions, heights, widths, depths, and details, then close your eyes for a few moments and try to visualize the object in its essential components. You will soon see which points have not received sufficient attention. Look at the object again and take in the details you missed before. Now close the eyes again—this time you can see the object much more clearly and completely.

It is most important to break down composite forms into primary and secondary forms in order to understand how the various proportions relate to each other. In the same way, we draw the main form first, followed by the secondary forms.

FAMAGU5TA/ CYPERN MAG USA 24-12 QO (k*

Figure 9.6

FAMAGU5TA/ CYPERN MAG USA 24-12 QO (k*

Figure 9.6

10.0 Use of Central Perspective

### 10.1 Example of a Front Door in Central Perspective

We have selected this object with its relatively clear-cut dimensions and proportions to illustrate the step-by-step construction of central or frontal perspective. The step sequence is as follows:

10.1.1 Picture Detail

We select the particular detail from among the various possibilities.

The distance between the eye and the door is such that the important parts of the object are at a certain distance from the edge of the drawing biock. All components are arranged on the picture plane (drawing plane) in such a way that all the essential details come fully within the picture. Symmetry is avoided in this instance, since equality between the left- and right-hand halves of the picture is not the drawing's intended statement and the sense of it would not be apparent.

10.1.2 Horizon Line

The first step is to draw the horizon line at eye level across the paper from left to right.

10.1.3 Fixing the Main Point

Next we fix the position of the main point and perhaps add a vertical line through the main point as an aid to orientation.

Choosing Detail

Figure 10.1

Figure 10 2

Choosing Detail

Figure 10 2