Structure

inorganic and organic

surface treated FACTURE

woven TEXTURE Figure 4 2

surface treated FACTURE

Texture r

Clearer outlines

4.2 Surface Limits

A precisely drawn limit line is often enough to identify different surfaces.

Most areas and surfaces are set off against others or their surroundings by black-and-white or colored optical delimitations, and these should be reproduced as exactly or true to life as possible. Different effects (a window in a concrete wall or white sheet of paper on a white tabletop) should be drawn in a manner that is typical of the material or its appearance.

Sheet of paper faint/v outlined

Bold outline—looks almost like a hole in the tabletop

Sheet of paper faint/v outlined

Bold outline—looks almost like a hole in the tabletop

Facture

Texture

Facture

The surface quality or the appearance of the material which makes up the surface we are drawing plays an important part in this process. The boundaries of very bright surfaces can pose problems to begin with, but the economical use of a few dots at the surfaces' edges and corners can improve clarity. The effect is similar to what happens at the edges of different areas in overexposed or underexposed photos (alienation), which just goes to prove that links with reality have not been lost.

Even the thickness of a limit line by comparison with reality—i.e., the object represented—determines the quality of a good or bad reproduction of differing surfaces. The merely linear identification of the area's boundary is only one possible way to identify that area; the other is to fill in the various areas with graphic devices.

4.3 One Exception: The Visualization of Superimposed Levels

In discussions of technical problems or aspects of urban planning it may be necessary to give an exact representation of two or more superimposed surfaces of differing size and shape on a single picture plane. In this case the problem can only be properly solved by the use of hatching (and cross-hatching) drawn in alternating directions.

Technical Freehand Drawing

Water

Technical Freehand Drawing

Water

Carpet

Curtam

Technical Freehand Drawing

Figure 4.6 Diagrammatic Sketches of a Building in Isometry and Layout

4.4 Hollows—Elevations—Hills— Mountains

Occasionally it will be necessary to draw all sorts of hills, eminences, and so on in a single plane, and for this we can use contour lines, banking, shading, and perspective.

Curtam

Shown on several levels
Simple Cross Contour Art

Figure 4.6 Diagrammatic Sketches of a Building in Isometry and Layout

Shops Ground Plan

Shops Ground Plan

Figure 4.7 Representation of Hills. Mountains. Hollows. "

Figure 4.7 Representation of Hills. Mountains. Hollows. "

Ground Water Contour Plans
Top view with contour lines Top view with relief shndmg

4.5 The Even Division of Line and Area by Eye

Dividing an area or line into even sections or lengths will at first seem difficult, but the solutions are in fact simple. With the eye some distance away from the paper, try to view the entire area or both ends of the line and then split it up optically into equal portions. Again, before committing pencil to paper, your desired sections or lengths should be firmly fixed in the mind's eye Halving the distance between two points is not difficult either: the distance is magnified "for fun" and we then try to determine exactly where the center is. With a little confidence which will come with practice. we will be able to extend this process by halving the halves, and so on. We obtain quarters simply by halving twice, while further halving will divide a line into eight equal sections, and so forth.

With practice we should be able to estimate how big the subdivisions should be.

To divide a line into three equal parts, it is necessary to guess with the eye how long the third . would be. then place it centrally between the two line ends.

Practice on a sheet of paper right away. With long lines you should take your time, estimate the thirds with your eye. and then start drawing the divisions.

Six equal parts can be easily obtained by applying the halving method discussed above.

Dividing a distance into seven or nine equal sections is easier if we start by splitting up the line with faint dots and then correcting rapidly as we go. A little practice will soon convince you that dividing lines and areas into equal parts is no great art.

Dividing lengths

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Pencil Drawing Beginners Guide

Pencil Drawing Beginners Guide

Easy Step-By-Step Lessons How Would You Like To Teach Yourself Some Of The Powerful Basic Techniques Of Pencil Drawing With Our Step-by-Step Tutorial. Learn the ABC of Pencil Drawing From the Experts.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment