Roorr illustrated with simple flat views

Roorr illustrated with simple flat views

General View

Figure 4 9

4.7 Dimensioning Sketches and Elevations

Dimensioning sketches and elevations may be necessary for two reasons:

1. to provide data for the construction of a building or the production of an object, or 2 to give a better idea of the actual proportions of existing structures and buildings.

The most important factors here are the main dimensions and main axes, which can be amplified by the addition of typical detail dimensions. Overall dimensions should be outermost in the drawing, while individual dimensions are placed further in toward the object. The thickness or arrangement of the dimension lines should in no way disturb the drawing or compete with it. Equally important are the dimension end points; i.e., from and to which point is the interlying distance actually measured? These end points must be easily recognizable.

Figure 4.13 "Station"—Typical Orientation Layout

Museum Showcases


Figure 4.13 "Station"—Typical Orientation Layout

Confused' Could lead to mistakes Figure 4.12 Confusing and Correct Dimensional Detail

4.8 Orientation Layout Plan (Page 63)

Areas and spaces are suggested by simple hatching. It is vital to select and arrange lettering that does not destroy the impression given by the general view. Nor should the hatching lines be drawn through the letters, since this will affect legibility (see drawing at foot of page 63).

4.9 Exterior Building Elevations

Light wall colors, dark window areas, and shadows determine the flavor of this sketch Lighter and somewhat detached sketches of the buildings in the background are necessary to differentiate the various masses.

4.10 Size, Clarity, and Legibility of Illustrations

Clarity is first achieved by drawing the overall context. Care should be taken to provide optical and graphic points of contact. In terms of information density we should add that several sketches on different sheets of paper are always better than a single overloaded drawing. (Just think how unpleasant it is to look at a dress pattern, for instance; the maze can only be unravelled by staring at the pattern and pursuing individual lines.) At least one-third of the areas in every drawing should be left blank as white surfaces so as not to irritate the optical nerves too much.

Many examples especially of Oriental drawing, show that the drawing area is far from completely covered. At the same time we must ensure that fear of overloading the paper does not lead to tiny postage stamp drawings on huge sheets of paper. Care should always be taken to attain satisfactory and pleasing relationships in the size of drawing

Just as one listens to other people's points of view in discussion, so the draftsman should bear in mind his potential audience. Sketches intended for a small discussion group, for example, should be kept small as well, while for lectures and large discussion groups, account should be taken of the greater distance between illustration and spectator It is always awkward and embarrassing in discussions, talks, and meetings when the session is interrupted by people jumping up to take a close look at one's sketches and drawings

The way in which twentieth century urban planning is decided on the strength of toylike models (almost matchbox size) would be funny were it not so tragic

So always go for legibility, scale, and proportion.

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Attractive Town Planning Model

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Attractive Town Planning Model

5.0 Good Drawing Arrangement and Layout

The arrangement of freehand drawings and sketches on a sheet of paper needs to be considered. especially if they are meant to be looked at and evaluated by others later on. Freehand drawings should always make use of the entire sheet format, since tiny drawings on large sheets of paper usually look curiously lost.

5.1 Prominent

One illustration dominates the area, and everything else appears of secondary significance (for space and surface drawing).

5.1 Prominent

One illustration dominates the area, and everything else appears of secondary significance (for space and surface drawing).


5.5 Rhythmic

The picture is dominated by characteristic and similar forms that recur at given intervals. It will seldom be possible to construct a sketch in this way.

5.6 Grouped

The regular repetition of identical groupings can be used in exceptional cases provided we make sure that the typical feature of the individual group is kept quite distinct. Here again, the rather lifeless groups can be enlivened by making one more prominent than the others.


5.2 Framed

The tension between two elements (poles), e.g., structural sections, determines the drawing's statement.

5.3 Rows

The : tatement is determined by the repetition of identical or very sjmilar things in a row. The monotony of a row can be overcome by highlighting one of its component parts.

5.4 Arranged around Axes

The arrangement of equal surfaces around one or more axes seldom gives a satisfactory result, and the important statement is frequently suffocated beneath the formalism of such empty symmetry.

5.2 Framed

The tension between two elements (poles), e.g., structural sections, determines the drawing's statement.

Arranged Around Axes

5.7 Agglomerations (Ordered and Disordered)

Ordered agglomerations, usually arranged perpendicular to each other, are a typical occurrence in our technological age.

A certain equilibrium between the various areas and their graphic values (optical weight) is desirable, and an adequate amount of space (white!) between the areas helps to avoid confusion.

5.8 So-Called "Free Forms" and "Free Composition"

You could be forgiven for thinking that the "free form" depends on the total absence of any of the criteria so far mentioned. In reality however the statement made by the free form is essentially determined by the reciprocal proportions of individual sections and lengths and by a more or less uniform statement (purity) of individual lines (whether only arcs, angles. straights, etc.).

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