Figure 13 10
In summer, on the other hand, we can usually only see the outlines of the crown and trunk at medium range. The sun and daylight make the uppermost parts of the tree appear brighter while the underside of the crown has dark areas of shade.
In southern latitudes especially, there are many trees which allow light to fall through the crown because of its sheer intensity and the great heat from the sun.
Trees can be represented either by simple outlines or with many individual leaves (like the shading on a sphere). It is possible however to opt for simplifications that show only outlines at the top and individually projecting branches in the upper crown, while suggesting very dark shadow edges on the underside of the crown.
Tree trunks can also be drawn in different ways Two lines as the external profile are a somewhat sparse indication of a tree trunk, and can be amplified by the addition of other differentiated and variously spaced lines (like the shading on a true cy linder). With some types of trees it is possible to draw horizontal rings around the trunk to indicate roundness. Most trees possess roots similar in size and diameter to their crown
Shrubs; Bushes; Brushwood
Everything we said about trees applies equally to these plants as well, with the following exceptions:
Leaves and flowers are considerably larger in relation to the overall volume. Most of these plants begin to branch out from ground level (i.e., no visible trunk). Isolated bushes often have a structure which (like trees) develops from the center outward with a short, round form offering as little wind resistance as possible.
There are however many shrubs and bushes that grow along the ground or have other irregular expanding shapes. Groups of plants of varying heights and lengths constitute light solids and when seen together—form enclosed spaces. Typical types of branches and their leaf roots as well as extralarge leaves and other peculiarities compel the draftsman to study each line carefully before committing a single stroke to paper. When reproducing motifs from nature it is advisable to study the chosen scene for some considerable time-almost learn it by heart -and visualize the finished result in the mind's eye.
Plants in Architectural Drawing
Trees in plans and artists' impressions should suggest something of their form and nature. In simple terms, there are the two possibilities of summer and winter greenery: with and without foliage. The degree of detail must be in harmony with the overall intent and purpose of the drawing; one should always confine oneself to a distinct type of drawing in each illustration (either trunk and branches or solids and volume).
Like grass and shrubs, trees should be similar to each other in form of expression.
Even if plants are represented by outline alone, one should make certain that the individual profiles reflect a certain similarity or uniformity; use may be made of arcs of circles or ellipses. The student should spend some time studying these features in good drawings; the practiced draftsman confines himself to a uniform expression, just as with other graphic techniques, so that the finished drawing does not have a confusing effect on the spectator.
14.0 Drawing Flowers and Blooms
Despite the infinite variety in the plant world it is possible to summarize a few rules at this stage which should help to facilitate an understanding of the forms involved and hence of the drawing technique to be employed. For many of the phenomena encountered in this area we can say that the rough outlines always fall within a closed geometrical form (sphere, cone, cylinder, oval, egg-shape, circle, polygon, trapezium, rectangle, triangle) The general images often develop centri-cally (in relation to a point or axis). Structures are frequently more or less symmetrical Stalks, stamens, leaves, and petals narrow toward the tip. Plants and blooms become lighter and more airy upward and outward Faint guidelines can assist in the drawing of flowers and will hardly impair the quality of the finished product. Erasing the guidelines could leave a bad impression, on the other hand
15.0 Drawing Boats and Ships
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