## Info

a - 1/3-jOcm ffij " "i-»» ¥ /— a = 1/3 = 50cm l| /

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/ ground line ground-to-eye distance/ ,s,andin9 (approximately 1.5 m)

Step 2. Determine the vanishing point on the horizon (an eccentric position avoids uninteresting symmetry).

Step 3. Draw ground level at distance of ground from eye (approx. 1.5 to 1.6 meters) below horizon line (3 height divisions) = a.

Step 4. Draw in door height approximately 2.0 m (4 x a) and ceiling height approximately 2.50 m (5 x a = 5 x 0.5 m).

1 m (approximately) 2 * a (approximately)

1 m (approximately) 2 * a (approximately)

Step 5. Draw left- and right-hand room limits and the doorway, estimating the proportions of height:width.

Step 6. Draw in the "depth lines," i.e., the lines that lead to and from the vanishing point in this frontal perspective.

Step 7. Once the main lines and dimensions have been drawn in, it is easy to illustrate the remaining detail.

1.0 Freehand Drawing—It Can Be Learned

1.1 Drawing

In the modern technological era, the ability to convey ideas clearly and convincingly is more important than ever before.

While problems and concerns can be succinctly conveyed through concise speech and unequivocal gesture, technical and structural problems can often only be explained with the aid of signs and symbols drawn on paper. This is where freehand drawing can have a special part to play, and it is no exaggeration to claim: "Anyone can learn to draw freehand provided he's willing!"

Of course, a modicum of patience is required to carry out the exercises, but it is no great difficulty to reproduce as a drawn outline what one sees. Nor need the sketching of objects on paper have anything to do with so-called "talent" or even "art." The sole requirement, in fact, is practice in observation and awareness of everyday life and in the handling of drawing materials.

Drawing can mean sketching the outlines. During the Renaissance—and even in the Bauhaus— they said things like "Good draftsmanship is part of an all-around education." Today we might add that "Good photographs may be very beautiful but we should never quite forget how to draw." The ancient Persians, Egyptians, and Greeks were excellent draftsmen and such good illustrators that today their achievements are known as ancient art.

Photographs are no substitute for the more differentiated drawing, the photograph is usually a poor substitute since most photos include all manner of detail extraneous to the actual object. Apart from the object itself being insufficiently stressed (what is it a photo of, exactly?), the surroundings and background, etc., detract from the central impression the picture is supposed to convey. A clear-cut and concise drawing that is kept free of superfluous detail can even enhance the aesthetic quality (beauty?) of a picture.

So far as modern photographic equipment is concerned, there is little doubt that any merely photo graphic representation becomes meaningless the moment that a camera's easy handling turns critical selectivity into snapshot mania. Just as with drawing and composition, really good photography is dependent upon the patient and concentrated observation of the subjects to be portrayed.

"Drawing" can be interpreted as "making signs and symbols of something," a process in which the essence of an object is sketched, emphasized, and brought out. As a consequence, irrelevant matter must be omitted since it merely dilutes the major point of information. In certain instances this can even entail leaving out the entire surroundings and concentrating on the essential features only. Personal style and "artistic" flourishes are not absolutely necessary unless we wish to highlight specific features.

This means that drawing gives us an opportunity to practice and sharpen our awareness of the essentials, a fact made clear by any good caricature. And as our experience grows we will find it easier and quicker to reproduce forms, buildings, and structures.

Our choice of motifs will also teach us to see specific sections of a view: we will learn to pick out drawings and pictures from an overall scene and arrange the objects in skillful form ("composition"). Finally, a thoughtfully selected observation point will do much to improve the pictorial composition as a whole.

The student should soon overcome his initial feeling of having to cover the paper with firm lines. A little practice should teach us to visualize the finished drawing as we begin the very first stroke. Before we can speak a language we must learn the vocabulary; in terms of drawing, this means that we must learn to see and draw lines—not a hard task for anyone with a little courage.

The aim of this book is to teach the student the basic manual skills and to establish his confidence in technical execution. As his experience and skill grow, the freehand draftsman will discover his own techniques in accordance with his temperament and personal preferences.

1.2 Drawing Materials—Where Do I Start?

The line and the drawing are what counts, not a great outlay on expensive paper or materials.

### 1.2.1 Drawing Instruments

It is essential that our materials allow for a flowing, even line and stroke. Avoid anything that broadens the stroke as it gets longer, or which can easily spoil the paper, such as too soft a pencil or charcoal stick. For the beginner, wash and ink materials are just as unsuitable as ball-point pens, since minor irregularities, blurred stroke ends, and uneven line widths can form added "features" that are unsightly and certainly unintentional. A sharp school chalk on blackboard often makes for better stroke quality and overall results.

If one were to classify materials in terms of their suitability for freehand drawing, the list might look as follows:

1. thin felt-tip pen

2. pencil, medium

3. pencil, hard

4. pencil, soft

5. charcoal

6. india ink

7. chalk

8. fountain pen

### 9. ball-point pen

The width of the stroke should always be kept as even as possible. PenciJ and felt points should not widen too fast and should certainly not break off! Evenness of stroke can be achieved by rotating the instrument.

Drawing with a soft pencil, charcoal, or chalk has the great advantage that one can create stroke thicknesses ranging from wafer-thin to fat simply by varying the pressure on the instrument.

### 1.2.2 Drawing Paper

Most types of paper are suitable for freehand drawing and sketching provided they are light enough, absorbent, and somewhat coarse on the surface. Very smooth, shiny paper is unsuitable since pencil strokes will not seem dark enough, while other materials may even slip and smear. Heavy white Ingres paper, letter paper, or water-color paper is eminently suitable for freehand drawing.

The paper should rest on a solid, firm surface, and since drawing requires both time and patience, we should also find a comfortable sitting position.

2.0 First Essentials

2.1 Free Strokes (Exercise One)

The correct movement of related muscles in fingers, hands, and arms is an absolute necessity in drawing. Begin by loosening up the hands and arms; hand and arm positions and sureness of stroke will improve after a few sessions.

There is great pleasure in seeing one's very own first efforts on paper. We should spread an inexpensive sheet of paper on the wall or table and start by drawing free and relaxed loops as we move the arm back and forth in gentle swinging movements. The back of old wallpaper, unused wrapping paper, or similar material makes an ideal host for our initial efforts. The paper should be about 50 centimeters square; refer to Section 1.2.1 for drawing instruments.

Before actually putting pencil to paper it is advisable to go through the motions of drawing the complete form, then apply thin strokes as soon as you have familiarized yourself with the outlines. Strokes should always be drawn smoothly and briskly, and if at first you don't succeed, use a fresh sheet of paper. Erasing, correcting, and adding more strokes should be avoided, since this does nothing to increase your confidence. So begin again on a fresh sheet of paper.

You should also avoid getting into cramped hand and arm positions—all movements must be followed through rhythmically by the body. Your first circles and ovals will not be perfect, but don't let this deter you! Keep using fresh sheets of paper until the whole sequence of movements which produces the strokes has become steadier. In your efforts to overcome that cramped position and to draw the strokes briskly—and this should come right at the beginning of your exercises—some comfort may be taken from the knowledge that almost every drawer has been faced with the same problems at one stage or another, and has managed to overcome them. Now and then you should take a long, hard, critical look at your drawings from some distance away (two to three meters). This will help you to identify areas for improvement in terms of filling the paper, light and dark, distribution of different surfaces, expressiveness, legibility, and depth differentiation. This ability will of course grow with experience.

2.1.1 Free Strokes (Continued)

If possible, stand before a blackboard and draw the strokes shown below—or your own creations— with the arm held slightly bent to execute some generous free strokes.

Once completed, each line should be left alone! Strokes should not be drawn over or into one another. If you need to start a new line, then begin

Lines

Loops

Lines

Loops

Bows

Ovals

Bows

Ovals

Spirals

Circles

Spirals

Circles about one centimeter away from the existing line (on a blackboard), or one-half centimeter on paper.

After practicing on a blackboard or sheet of paper pinned up on the wall, stand at your table and draw the same strokes with hand and arm swinging back and forth over the horizontal paper. It is important here to sway with the whole body without supporting it on the free (nondrawing) hand. Finally, after practicing on wall and table one should try to make the strokes more disciplined and precise.

Remember—never overfill the paper, rather take a fresh sheet.

At some stage in your life you will have tried to draw straight lines freehand. You may have been fortunate enough to have had an excellent teacher who made the lessons so interesting that you have absolutely no fear of drawing freehand. If not, don't worry! Success can be achieved even without a helping hand. After all, freehand drawing means applying simple strokes to paper without the aid of ruler or T square. To draw straight lines the hand should rest firmly on the paper and only the hand and forearm should move across the drawing—slowly at first, then more briskly later on.

Figure 2.2 Line Quality

Practice all circles from left to right and from right to left.

Practice all circles from left to right and from right to left.

### Figure 2.2 Line Quality

Begin by trying to draw a single straight line; you must decide exactly where this line is to start and end. Wait, don't draw yet! It is vital that you draw the whole line in a single stroke from start to finish without stopping in the middle.

If for any reason you have to interrupt the line, don't ruin it by starting the new one on top of it. You will never achieve a satisfactory result by piling strokes one on top of the other, the resulting differences in stroke thickness will look awful. Your new line should start 2, 3, or 4 millimeters away from the end of the old one.

wrong

### Figure 2.3 Line Continuation

When making corners it is advisable to draw a deliberate cross. This will make your corner quite clear and unmistakable, so please have no fear of crossing over lines.

in order to achieve this. Even kings and presidents have their pens and paper tested for evenness before signing important documents.

Wrongl Short strokes in all directions.

Right! Corners and edges are emphasized. Round dots!

Figure 2.5 Dotting Picture Areas better correct

Wrongl Short strokes in all directions.

Right! Corners and edges are emphasized. Round dots!

Figure 2.5 Dotting Picture Areas

Figure 2.7 "Continuous" Strokes

P°sslble --right

Figure 2.4 "Corners" in Drawing

So far as the thickness of the strokes is concerned, one should leave nothing to chance. The thickness should not be dictated by the pen, pencil, or felt tip but must be the decision of the draftsman alone. Long strokes of even thickness can be drawn by turning the instrument frequently. Dots should really be just that—short strokes that are meant to be dots are very ugly and look as if they have just been "dashed off," a sure sign of carelessness and a superficial approach on the part of the artist.

• Surfaces should be dotted evenly and with a sense of balance. Dots must be really round!

• Deliberate smearing or rubbing of pencil strokes are not the proper techniques of good drawing. These are signs of superficiality, lack of concentration, and slovenliness.

It is not that hard to draw lines evenly over their entire length. With every new pen or pencil you should see whether the desired stroke thickness is maintained and how the instrument has to be held

### Figure 2.6 Starting New Lines

To assist in practicing, it might be useful to take a sheet of graph paper or paper with ruled lines on which you can happily draw individual straight lines from a conscious beginning to a deliberate finish. Also, try to draw parallel lines horizontally as well as vertically.

better correct

Once the initially uncertain and perhaps shaky stroke exercises have assumed more discipline and confidence, take a sheet of plain paper and do the following exercises until these too have acquired confidence and self-assurance.

Line exercises

### 2.3 Infilled Areas

Now and then it will be necessary to fill in a large or small area to make it appear black or very dark. One should always avoid monotonous shading with the same shade of pencil, charcoal, or crayon; it looks unsightly and is not good enough for any acceptable standard of drawing. If a certain area is supposed to look darker than the general background, then the most satisfactory solution is "hatching" with narrowly spaced lines.

### Figure 2.8 Parallel Lines

Here is something else for you to try: drawing straight lines parallel to the drawing board or table edge by steadying the hand on the edge and using it as a guideline.

Figure 2.9 Use of Drawing Board Edge as Guide for Straight Lines

2.4 Hatching and Diverging Lines

Hatching has two particular features, if done well:

1. the evenness of strokes and their spacing, and

### 2. the uniform direction of the strokes.

Just take a look at newspapers, magazines, or books; any irregularity of hatching in terms of line continuity, spacing, or direction is immediately noticeable. This means that hatching must be applied as evenly as possible, bearing in mind that too wide a spacing will sacrifice cohesion.

Hatching too widely spaced in relation to the size of the area.

Hatching should never be done in a hurry. Hurried hatching is yet another sign of carelessness and untidiness in the draftsman, and is bound to give the impression that the same "can't be bothered" attitude carries over into other areas of drawing, like design, dimensions, possible errors, etc.

Diverging lines should be avoided, especially those which intersect the main line at a very sharp angle and leave unpleasant "leftover" areas.

Just as a natural stone floor can be displeasing with its slabs of different shapes and colors, areas covered by all sorts of different lines look just as unsightly. The different directions and line lengths have a disturbing effect on the eye, and so we can conclude that a restriction in the number of directions and the avoidance of very acute angles will have a visually positive and pleasing effect in just about any drawing.

Far too hurried, superficial hatchings (all wrongl):