Cellar

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1 8.7 Sketches of Classical Furniture

This makes no great demands on the draftsman, provided the furniture has more or less closed forms. The horizon line is plotted first, as always Then come the verticals, which also provide height-to-width proportions for the various faces The vanishing lines converge left and right on common vanishing points on the horizon. If these vanishing points are unattainable, we can use scale lines to indicate the correct vanishing line direction.

Another drawing aid with symmetrically constructed objects—as is the case here—is the axis of symmetry which, once found, can be used to locate the correct points for the individual lines with the use of further scaling Where there is shade or cast shadow, the timber faces can be provided with drawn grain lines

Drawing Cast Shadow
Italian Chest. 15th century Wr,t,n9 Cabinel- 1 780
Architecture Freehand Drawing

Castle Ch.llon <1 100) on Lake Geneva Sl Ulnch Goslar (, 050,

Castle Vanishing Point

Maulbronn Monastery (1 4th eenturyl

Church o 1 St John. Schwabisch Gmiind

Castle Ch.llon <1 100) on Lake Geneva Sl Ulnch Goslar (, 050,

18.8 Sketches from a Lecture on the History of Architecture

These are routine examples of typical historical styles and were drawn in the lecture hall.

The fact that many parts of small sketches seem too strong because of the thickness of the stroke should not worry the beginner, since it is typical of this type of illustration. If one needs to make a lot of small sketches like this, for whatever reason, one will eventually learn to pick out just the essentials of an object and then to set them down on paper in a very short space of time. Small details may be overlooked in the process, but this will make the outlines all the clearer.

Maulbronn Monastery (1 4th eenturyl

This kind of sketch is typified by its concentration on the most conspicuous parts of the structure, rapid execution, and the total absence of any "useless"' ingredient. Shadow and detail are unimportant. The lines are simple, bold, and confident. No stroke is drawn twice. The lines can be interrupted at corners, etc. A lot of repetitious features such as rows of detail need only be partially shown. The spectator will complete the picture with details he has already seen and experienced.

Church o 1 St John. Schwabisch Gmiind

Pazzi Chapel Florence

Castle Eltz (135)0). Moselle

Pazzi Chapel Florence (1409)

Castle Eltz (135)0). Moselle

Pazzi Chapel Florence (1409)

18.9 Interiors

Eltz Castle Floor Plan

Not everyone has the same powers of imagination, and with some building or design projects it may prove difficult to explain to a client, for instance, which spatial effects or finished appearances one is aiming for, or what the possible alternatives are in terms of cost-cutting or restrictive regulations.

These examples show that just a few freehand strokes are enough to convey a relatively accurate impression of interior space.

Figure 18.11 Six Freehand Details for Roof Pitches

Living Hoom and Terrace

Figure 18.12

18.10 Exterior Views of a Shop and Cafe

Street Cafe

Figure 18.14

Example ol a very rapid sketch that might have been made in a cafe on the back ol an envelope.

Oblique Drawing Examples

Ground Plan

General View

Front View

Promenade

Ground Plan

Ground Plan

18.10 Exterior Views of a Shop and Cafe

With this more interesting but rather difficult job, the first step is to plot the verticals and the horizon line as shown in Figure 18.13. Next we determine the proportions of the various visible surfaces, drawing first their vertical and then their oblique lines. Glass as a building material requires little or no indication in this type of sketch. Surfaces which lie in shade or shadow can be darkened by hatching. To give the less imaginative viewer a better idea of the substance and volume of the solids, it is sometimes useful to add a small ground plan in one corner of the drawing. Human figures complete the sketch by suggesting scale and size.

Front View

Ground Plan

Figure 18.13

General View

Street Cafe

Figure 18.14

Example ol a very rapid sketch that might have been made in a cafe on the back ol an envelope.

Promenade

Joshua Nava

Figure 18 16

Figure 18 17

18.11 Artist's Impression of a Building Project

An exterior view should give the client a proper visual impression before construction commences, and the first thing is the precise design of all parts of the building. The aim of obtaining a complete and uniform image was achieved here by generally illustrating with lines—there are no completely black areas Hatching replaces surface detail. All light gray, dark gray, and other tonal shades are represented by texture, structure, fac-ture, and hatching. The contrast between light and dark areas is intended to give the picture a certain density and substance. The overhanging branches and foliage frame the building and lend a sense of depth to the drawing Plants, grass, and stones in the foreground can be shown in great detail, but lose their sharpness with increasing picture depth The strokes are shorter and thinner.

The building is given substance by the contrast between surfaces lying in direct sunlight and others in shade. Glazed areas and small windows within illuminated surfaces are best represented by dark, close hatching; the building facade will then appear bright against them This optical effect is frequently observed in bright daylight and especially in buildings without curtains at the windows. It is best to leave the sky blank against the leaves on the tree, the tree trunk, and the undergrowth; the lamp globes should also be left plain against their background. To give the single-storey building greater volume against the bright sky beyond, the trees in the background are shown with dark leaves (dots). This building's windows are also close hatched to indicate darkness. Finally, there is an appropriate entrance and human figures to give an impression of scale.

Figure 18 16

18.12 Civil Engineering Projects

Figure 18 17

These can be drawn freehand very easily in spite of their often huge dimensions. All the rules of perspective of light and shade and of simple stroke and line apply The choice of a scale that corresponds with the human eye level will produce adequate expressions of solids and space

Best PicturesCartoon Drawings For Civil Engg
Figure 18.19 Civil Engineering Project—Purification Plant

18.13 Layout of a Chemistry College

When sketching layouts like this it is important to pick out the essential structures and exterior spaces in simple lines. The buildings are just sharply outlined—their floor areas are left plain as are roof areas. In contrast, landscaped areas should be close hatched. The trees are shown as plain circles. The layout is given a feeling of substance by the inclusion of shadows cast by diagonally incident sunlight. Cast shadow is shown along two sides of rectangular buildings depending on their elevation.

18.14 Ground Plan of a Chemistry College

The various rooms are arranged with their appro priate communicating routes with the aid of an orientation grid. Corridors are close-hatched for added clarity. With a little basic experience in the reading of plans it will be easy to see where buildings are located and wall structures are positioned The critical zone of the drawing lies in the transitional areas between exteriors and interiors. An overindication of green spaces can well blur the overall impression of the building itself, while too sparse an indication will fail to identify a given area as interior or exterior.

Lavout 1:1000

Figure 18.20

Lavout 1:1000

Figure 18.20

Freehand Drawing

18.15 Drawing Major Roads

The chief difficulty here is to recognize the foreshortening of roads that lead away into the distance. Even with these freehand drawings it is easier first of all to mark horizon, main point, and width divisions on the picture plane. We then have to study the curves and bends, plotting their turning points and sketching a likeness. The fore-shortenings in the background, the width of the stones, or the exact position of the crash-barrier supports are things that can cause problems to begin with. One should first lightly mark in the divisions and then do a little correction work afterward, if required.

The utmost concentration is needed to illustrate the landscaped green areas and trees. It will be useful to make a few attempts at the edge of the sheet or try the various forms of graphic/artistic representation before achieving the best and most appropriate reproduction of terrain and vegetation.

The draftsman should also refrain from attempting to draw every detail; he should have the courage to leave white areas (which may perhaps appear gray in reality, e.g., concrete). Contrast between very light and very dark areas will give sufficient indication of the outlines (limits) of solids, buildings, and green spaces.

In these particular examples with great depth of perspective, the degree of detail, freedom and heaviness of line will naturally diminish as distance increases.

Highway Free Hand SketchFree Hand Sketch Highway

18.16 Garden Layout for a Detached House

When drawing a garden plan one is naturally inspired by one's imagination, but the layout should nevertheless be clear and graphically good despite the many varied forms of nature. The attraction of the task and its difficulty lie in the simplification of the forms and their symbols.

Such layouts can of course also be provided with the shadows of buildings, trees, and bushes; in this particular example of a small detached residence, this would not involve a great loss of essential information. The decision on whether or not to include shadow in a garden layout is one that will have to be taken on the merits of each case.

Freehand Sketching Tree

18.17 Model of German Pavilion at EXPO 70 in Osaka

Highway Sketch Figure
Figure 18.26

18.17 Model of German Pavilion at EXPO 70 in Osaka

This is a typical general sketch aimed at giving the onlooker an overall impression of the concept. The standpoint is such that we can see into the side facing the public. The need for all-around clarity means that we have to assume an unnaturally high, even unrealistic standpoint for this example: one could only gain this kind of visual impression from a very high tower or helicopter. It is however a very risky "developer's game" to visualize build ing concepts from a bird's-eye view alone. The illustration should always be based on the human scale and the human eye level, since people (pedestrians, the public, audiences, etc.) can usually only experience buildings from ground level. Many an oversized, out-of-place monstrosity might have been avoided if only someone had taken the trouble to make an accurate drawing of the likely finished product from correct eye level.

Cafe Sketches

In the example shown in Fig. 18.26, it was essential to capture the unusual form of the buildings. With spheres and spherical solids this can often only be achieved by plotting circumference lines at equal distances. With more complex and difficult forms it is permitted to use more pronounced and more typical guidelines.

The points on the domes indicate the hardly visible lightning rods. The sequentially arranged structures display outlines which should not come into direct contact in the drawing The resulting cast shadows are deliberately played down so as not to mislead the viewer. In reality, too, the shadows on the ground are blurred by a multitude of factors.

People can only be shown on a very small scale: dots for heads and squiggles for bodies are sufficient, since the observer's eye will fill in the rest of the detail. The surroundings are not shown, since the forms of the structures are expressive enough on their own.

Inflatable Circular Building

Translucent Awning

Figure 18 28

Lighting

Slide Projection 7

Commentary

Transparent Film

Picture frames act as emergency structure m the event of pressure loss

Lighting

Transparent Film

Slide Projection 7

Commentary

Perspective Projection Road Drawn
Display Console .

Figure 18 28

18.18 Illustration of a Road Bridge for a Competition

The characteristic appearance of a bridge should be drawn as realistically as possible for competition purposes to serve the panel of judges as an aid to making their decision.

The engineered and calculated designs are first entered precisely in cards, with constructive perspectives drawn from specific standpoints. The perspective should take careful account of the elevations of road and terrain. To make the picture as natural as possible, highway authorities will require the inclusion of banks, rivers, embankments, and natural environment in the illustration. Even the bend in the river must be accurately shown: just a few millimeters of inaccuracy in the lines will give a false impression of the project. Apart from having a thorough knowledge of perspective techniques, the draftsman should also be versed in freehand drawing. All "ingredients" such as figures, vehicles, plants, open spaces, etc., demand a true sense of scale and experience in the rapid representation of vegetation and tree trunks.

Vegetation Representation Drawing

Here are some tips you should memorize many areas can be left blank. The main thing is to indicate prominent features, details, and characteristics at particular places. It is advisable to include a reference figure to give some idea of the location of the horizon. Shadows must be cast at the correct angle according to the sunlight. Reflections in water should be indicated Depth and focus are achieved by a lighter background and more detail in the foreground Leaves, clumps of grass, and stones in the foreground indicate image depth within the foremost meter, thereafter the scale rap idly diminishes. To provide the picture with a "frame" it may be useful to show a tree or similar object to one side. A tree on both sides (left and right) would, however, be just too much! The result would be almost stagelike. To minimize the likelihood of adverse criticism, it is recommended that the draftsman try out various detailed finishes over the basic perspective structure before deciding on the best.

Freehand Sketching An Introduction

Freehand Sketching An Introduction

Learn to sketch by working through these quick, simple lessons. This Learn to Sketch course will help you learn to draw what you see and develop your skills.

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  • Stefan
    How to draw freehand civil sketches houses?
    5 months ago

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