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The vanishing lines of watercraft may make it more difficult to perceive their exact and simple geometrical body lines than with cubes and parallelepipeds, but they are nevertheless solids that are governed by quite definite laws. Once the latter have been studied more closely it will be found that drawing boats and ships is not so hard. Generally it can be assumed that almost every hull has a fore-and-aft axis (centerline) which is usually an axis of symmetry. From the viewpoint of safety from capsizing and sinking, we can also suppose that the centers of mass and gravity are often in the center of the vessel and as low down as possible. Using the general rules of perspective, we can imagine hulls with transverse axes running

perpendicular to the centerline. It should not be so hard, therefore, to capture a vessel's attitude in a drawing.

To become "acclimatized" it is advisable to begin with orthogonal drawings (ground plan, side and front elevations). The streamlined forms of lighter watercraft have an important part to play, while huge bulk carriers are built almost like long rectangular boxes It is surprising, for example, to realize just how rectangular barges or tankers can be. Before starting to draw, it is important to become familiar with the object—the draftsman should "experience" it by walking (or sailing) around it. Then one must decide on the vessel s three dimensional and structural breakdown Finally, our knowledge of perspective will help us to draw foreshortenings and the entire body of the vessel. Even the quickest and best draftsman impresses the overall construction in his mind, then visualizes (perhaps in a split second) the three-dimensional implications.

Ships in their dominating attitudes and often isolated positions on calm seas can have great charm and attraction as subjects for our drawings, reflections in the water can complete the picture. The mirror axis is the water level!

Only the upper parts of the vessel need to be drawn as reflections on the water.

Land vehicles and aircraft have similar characteristics in their outward appearance, and so the same rules apply to them as to watercraft.

16.0 Drawing Other Forms of Transport

The better one is able to grasp all contours, especially the vanishing lines, before setting pencil to paper, the better one's drawings of land vehicles, aircraft, and marine vessels will be. Free curves which do not lie in planes that are perpendicular to each other can pose problems, and so it is frequently advisable mentally to insert reference shapes (sphere, cone, cylinder, annular ring, etc.) into the volume and then determine the boundary lines accordingly.

Figure 16.1 Elevated Railway

17.0 Drawing People

We shall confine our comments to the most essential principles.

Travel sketches, artists' and architects' impressions. street and garden scenes are always more expressive when they include human figures.

The specific aim of this section is to prevent otherwise successful geometrical drawings from being ruined by the inclusion of deformed human shapes.

Our eye level determines the actual human dimension for all our activities within the man-made world Buildings, structures, parks, streets, and landscapes should always be matched to human requirements for attainability, accessibility, suitability. adequacy, etc.

If we assume a certain uniformity in human stature we may conclude that the individual parts of the human body are of uniform dimension also

Since antiquity it lias been customary to divide up the human proportions into eight equal parts, with certain parts of the body located at each subdivision. The length of the head from crown to chin may generally be taken to represent one-eighth. The sketches on this page give a rough indication of the main reference points. The reader is advised to take a sheet of paper and copy the divisions until he has fixed the sectional structure firmly in his mind; this will also help to avoid some typical mistakes. The neck for example must be set in such a way so that the head does not sit directly on the shoulders. In many sketches the head can be simply positioned above the body without any interconnecting lines A wedge shape can be assumed for human bodies—in rough terms and this begins at shoulder height from around two-eighths of the overall height, narrowing rapidly toward the ground.

Drawing heads should not cause too many worries once one has studied and memorized certain proportions. The entire head is subdivided from top to bottom in seven sections. In the upper part a circle of 5/7 is drawn, in the lower part one of 4/7 diameter The following proportions are im portant; the hairline comes at 1/7 down from the crown, followed by 2/7 head height as the forehead and temples. Eyebrows and the root of the nose come immediately beneath the forehead. The nose is about 2/7 head height in length and ends 2/7 above the chin The mouth is located slightly above the bottom seventh (see Fig 17.2).

Figure 17 1

Four Year Old

Figure 17.2

One Year Old

### Four Year Old

Here are some examples of figures shown in outline. This simple method of representing people is most suitable when the chief aim of the drawing is to show objects, in which case the figures should lend the illustration scale (sense of proportion) and a certain degree of expression. Once again the ground rules as few lines as possible should be drawn; only the typical lines of the figure should be highlighted and stressed; areas need not be filled in; omit unnecessary detail.

18.0 Motifs and Subjects: Some Practical Examples

Beginner's exercise a simple box

Next we should practice drawing frontal/orthogonal (rectangular) facades of houses, e.g., half-timbered.

### The main dimensions should always be indicated.

Experience shows that beginners choose far too difficult subjects. First exercises should be drawings of small boxes, models, pots, glasses, bottles, teapots, and that sort of thing.

Beginner's exercise a simple box

Figure 18.1

One should always enter the main proportions to gam training in control and scale.

Architectural section accès sible measurements and mam dimensions must be indicated

fHHh

Architectural section accès sible measurements and mam dimensions must be indicated

One should always enter the main proportions to gam training in control and scale.

### 18.1 All Kinds of Containers

Drawing containers may seem rather difficult to the beginner, but it should come fairly easily with a little practice in observing and in the drawing of circles and ellipses. To begin with it is best to draw guidelines in the form of height lines and center axes. Another useful aid is the tangential contact between uprights and horizontal circles and ellipses The turning point of the line is where the dotted axis in the explanatory sketch meets the arc of the circle. The fewer the lines drawn, the better and more convincing will be the overall picture of well-drawn objects. Shade should also be sparsely indicated.

Figure 18 2

Can or Similar lurning Point

18.2 Quick Sketch of a Very Simple Household Object

The objects to be illustrated should show typical and few—but clear—forms.

Figure 18.3

Side View

Front View

A spatial view in the form of a perspective drawing with two vanishing points should always be preceded by drawings of ground plan, front elevation, and side elevation. In this way the onlooker will immediately recognize first the dimensions, second the proportions, and third any complex line intersections. A typical drawing should also indicate overall and individual dimensions. Small sections made in the frontal drawing can provide useful information as details (e.g., of cross-sectional profiles which are otherwise seen only as one of four possible external surfaces in the view).

Figure 18.3

Side View

Front View

Dia 72 at height 70 cm

Ornamental well in the outer courtyard of the Casa délia Katharina." Sienna Drawn during a trip to Italy on 9/20/1963 D Thulesius

Dia 72 at height 70 cm

18.3 Object and Architectural Drawings

Architectural drawings can be made in the form of flowing freehand sketches. Drawings of objects and artifacts should be done with sufficient care so that a relatively simple object could actually be handmade without too much effort. Main views from the front, the side, and a view-from above (top view) should convey a good overall impression, and can be supplemented by explanatory information (details) regarding main structure and by formal statements. It is also advisable to add a small perspective view of the overall object. Further clarity is provided by overall and single dimensions, materials, colors, and surface finishes. Date, place, and other attendant details can also be added.

18.4 Extract Taken from a Lecture

Ornamental well in the outer courtyard of the Casa délia Katharina." Sienna Drawn during a trip to Italy on 9/20/1963 D Thulesius

Simple line sketches, presented clearly, can facilitate the understanding of structural parts and structural relationships. Like marks or symbols, they help to convey the basic subject matter and imprint it on the memory.

Wood ancJ Its Uses m Building Construction/Notes in an A3 Block

Horseshoe Na.l ,

Full Cut Quarter Cut H ,íai1

a| % Roofing Batten

Half C ut 'Ii"- ^^ Shrinkage | ' / y Shutterboard

// //. ECTJ Age Rings o* W y/ I^ Standing Timber jximum Swell and Expansion

Hot-Forged Naii 0 Panel Pm

Sapwood

Drawing Pm

Heartwood

Compressive and l'ensile Forces n Wood , ...¿—.Fi llister-Head Screw

Rebate^.

Rebate Jointing Crosscut Markmg-off . . Wood

Flat-Head Screw or Wood Screw

Glue, screw I nail this

Tongue-and Groove Jointing / Glued Joint /

Suitable for Gi

/interior jomery only

Fiberboard - Mmuminmw Chi pboard -

Glued Boards

Plywood

Veneer

Watei Deflection

Dowel Jointing

Corner Joints

Corner Tongue

//'Slashed

Weak

Weak

Fishplate i

Crossover

Slotted

Scarf Joint

Finger Joint

Machined Tenons, fenon

Ridge Beading. Dovetailed

I Double Tenon

Rebate

Casement Frame

Block Frame

Lining or Doorway

Boardmg

Frame infill"

Frames and Glued-On Panels

^ Nailed Batten

Panel

Masonry Rendering Strm

Alternative Rendering Finish

End View

Sections

Masonry Rendering Strm

Alternative Rendering Finish

End View

Sections

18.5 Detailed Section through a Timber Frame as a Masonry Finish

This example clearly demonstrates how one can quickly sketch materials, timber constructions, and visible surfaces with relatively rough strokes Depending on the type of material, its structure, and strength, graphic density can be used to represent the material qualities at least approximately Hatching and grain lines in the timber should only be lightly indicated, while actual edges should be drawn somewhat more heavily Cross sections through timbers are best shown as quarter timbers—i.e., as quadrants of a circle filled in with arcs to represent an actual cross section through a tree trunk With rectangular timber sections, the center of the circle {tree trunk) can be taken as being at one corner, then circular lines are drawn about that central point. The spacing of the rings in a tree trunk will vary from year to year according to the weather, and this too can be reproduced in a drawing

Cross sections through the wall rendering can be indicated by light areas—since plaster is usually light in color—with dots to mark small grains of sand and to give a sense of scale to the cross-sectional area The great strength of metals means that their sections will be very closely hatched Since this strength is also distributed more or less evenly over the whole section, the outlines of the sections can be drawn thin and with the same thickness as the hatching lines With general and detail sections it is always essential to include the background, adjacent faces (where visible), or technical guidelines drawn lightly. Just a few dots are enough to suggest the presence of a surface. Timber grain can only be drawn in the background where this does not cause a loss of clarity or legibility.

### 18.6 Freehand Construction of a Timber Staircase

The structural cohesion and eventual appearance of a building or other construction can often be in dicated by means of a sketch, The main outlines are first measured off and drawn in freehand or lightly with a rule. Once the main lines of reference and points of intersection have been drawn, it is relatively simple to fill in the rest of the con struction freehand. An almost realistic effect is achieved by the correct use of emphasis on light and heavy strokes. The practiced draftsman will be able to use this technique to identify and solve wider problem areas as well. The technique, which can do without tedious, exaggerated accuracy. will also increase drawing speed.

lust-Floor Heigw

Climb R.it'O

Stnrigci

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