## The Torso is Primary

The reason for this statement will become clear after a few exploratory sketches have been made, and when we work out the following propositions. The torso mass is the central double form to which all other forms attach. Any movement in the upper or lower torso will immediately throw the secondary formsâ€”the legs, arms, and headâ€”out of their previous positions and into a new relationship.

Here are four structured torsos, showing the ease with which figure notation may be indicated in a sequence of movements from left to right, front to back. It must be obvious now why the double torso mass is instrumental. The merest movement of the rib barrel produces an immediate displacement of arms and head, while a pelvic shift compels total deployment of all the body forms.

An important drawing aid, in accommodating the changes of direction in the two-part torso, is the center line of the body. In this two-stage drawing, the primary torso masses are on the left, the completed figure on the right. Of crucial interest here is the insertion of the midline in both figures. Notice how this midline, or center line, gives unity and direction to the independent movements of the separate masses (right).

In movement, the separate torso masses need not face in the same direction. The midline insertion can produce opposition between the upper and lower forms. The clue to this opposition is the spiral, or S-line connection. Starting with a simple bend only (figure on extreme left), this series of torsos shows an 5-line spiral insertion expressing a swivel, or twist, between the contrary views of the body masses: the rib barrel view on one side, the pelvic wedge pivoting to the opposite side (below).

A series of figure variations showing the correlate masses, Legs, ar show he governs