Different views of the head expose different dominant forms. The cranial ball, for instance, is usually considered fairly equal in size to the lower facial wedge. This is especially apparent in straight-on, front views. But when the cranial ball is seen from an overhead angle, it presents a far more impressive bulk than the facial wedge.
As we observe the head from a high position, from the top the crania vault dominates the narrow, con stricted mass of the face coming from under the projecting brow arch.
Then, as our vantage point is raised once more, this time in a right-to-left turn, the cranial mass is once again dominant.
From a bottom view, the wedge of the face takes on a more important appearance in relation to the cranial structure. The features of the face reveal a new aspect: looking upward at the face from underneath, we see the under-surfaces of the jaw, lips, nose, ears, and brow, and these forms assert a commanding presence over the side and frontal planes.
From the rear, the skull case and the facial wedge show their most characteristic differences in shape: the facial wedge, angular and hard-cornered, is small when contrasted with the larger, dome-shaped cranial mass.
The descending collarbone depression of the upper chest (left).
When the figure is tipped forward into a deep frontal view, the swelling curve of the rib cage, front to rear, is so great that it is able to girdle the head within its encircling contour (below).
The cylindrical column of the neck emerges like a thick, short tree limb growing from within the triangulate hollow of the chest (left).
In any view looking upward, the barreling chest mass dominates all other forms; like a curving landscape, the pectoral arch overlaps the neck.
This torso, shown upview front, reveals how much larger the mass of the chest is compared with its attached members, the head and shoulders.
When the chest and shoulders are considered as a combined form, we must be aware of a change in appearance in the upper chest mass: with the arm down (A), the shoulder merges with the chest (in this position, the upper torso takes on the qualified appearance of a wedge); and with the arm upraised (B), the shoulder lifts from the chest, exposing a barrel shape (above).
Special note should be made of the drawing of female breasts on the rib cage. In general appearance, the young adult female breast has the look of an overturned teacup positioned at the lower angle of the chest (above).
The diaphragm arch appears as a great, vaulting tunnel of bone at the base of the front of the chest. From this opening, like the hollow bottom of a brandy bottle, the long abdominal mass emerges and descends in three undulant stages, or tiers. It should be observed that the terminal belly form (the third tier), starting at the lower level of the navel and compressing to the pubic arch, is not only the largest of the three stages, but is roughly equivalent in size to the frontal head mass of this figure (left).
To place the breast correctly, it is necessary first to find the position of the nipple on the chest muscle. Using a male figure (for the sake of clarity), we start at the pit of the neck where the collarbones join (A). From this point, we plot a curve at a 45° angle to the vertical, central line of the body, which follows the barrel shape of the rib cage and progresses outward and down across the chest. The nipple disc (B) is located on this line just above the deep corner margin of the chest muscle.
If we draw two 45° lines outward from the center body line to the right and to the left across the chest barrel we can correctly place the nipples of the chest base
When the cuplike breasts are superimposed posed on the nipple positions, and the discs are advanced to the surface of the breast mounds, note that both breasts point off the curve of the chest at a combined angle of 90° (right).
When both breasts are shown, especially in a three quarter view, they can never be seen simultaneously from a direct, frontal position. One breast will be seen with its centrally located nipple disc face on, while the other will be seen in a side view, with its nipple projecting in profile.
In observing the full front view of the body, note an interesting contradiction neither breast is seen frontally; both breasts in this case point away from the direct line of vision in an off-angle outward direction.
Observe the positioning of the nipple discs; check the 90° angle at the pit of the neck for the correct placement of the nipples.
Was this article helpful?
Realize Your Dream of Becoming a Professional Pencil Drawing Artist. Learn The Art of Pencil Drawing From The Experts. A Complete Guide On The Qualities of A Pencil Drawing Artist.