## Shape Masses of the Figure

The significance of foreshortened form lies in describing three dimensional volume rather than in delineating flat shapes. Our approach, therefore, in involves more than contour drawing only. Since shape which is delineated only by outline is two dimensional and has no volume, it cannot express form in depth but when the forms of the figure are visualized as being three dimensional in space, the result is a three dimensional shape-mass. Inherent in the concept of shape-mass is the idea that the...

## Figure Notation in Deep Space

In Chapter 1, we attempted to show the major body forms as shape-masses, conceiving them according to their differences as solid objects in space. This means that we have tried to define form as three dimensional volume, not simply as flat body silhouette. Seeing the body as a flat silhouette encourages a simplistic description of the figure as a mere area, and a drawing of this flat shape commonly assumes the character of an outline, or contour, drawing only. Shape-mass, on the other hand,...

We have all that the hea reach the f notational o the head is i confirm the may be dra a given figi change or d This fignrt positions. T torso, do m head placer effective fie head meets 1 Here, two figures with deep tor bends give overviews of the figure from the front and from the back. The super imposition of each of the heads, in a number of trials, can proceed with ease and directness when the figure initially laid in. Indicating the he. first would create a needless obstruc tion to the...

## The Wedge Box of the Pelvis

The lower torso the pelvic mass has the general shape of a wedge box, in direct contrast to the upper torso the rotund barrel of the rib cage . After the rib cage, the pelvic wedge is the second largest mass of the body. Locked to the barrel by the tapering muscles of the waist, the wedge box is narrow at the top, broader at the base. Schematic rendering of the two torso masses the wedge box of the pelvis and the barrel of the rib cage. In the normal, erect attitude of the body, the two torso...

## Wedge Masses of Hand and Foot

The terminal forms of the extremities, the hand and the foot, are decidedly wedgelike in character. These two wedges, however, are very different in structure. In the two examples which follow, the wedge forms of the hand and the foot have been supplemented by companion sketches to show the unique character of each. The hand in the drawing to the right shows how the fingers separate and become extremely active, performing an immense variety of actions. The foot in the drawing below shows its...

## Body Figure Drawing

Most art students and too many professional artists will do anything to avoid drawing the human figure in deep space. Walk through the life drawing classes of any art school and you'll discover that nearly every student is terrified of action poses with torsos tilting toward him or away from him, with arms and legs striding forward or plunging back into the distance twisting and bending poses in which the forms of the figure overlap and seem to conceal one another and worst of all, reclining...

## Shape Masses of the Head Ball and Wedge

Different views of the head expose different dominant forms. The cranial ball, for instance, is usually considered fairly equal in size to the lower facial wedge. This is especially apparent in straight-on, front views. But when the cranial ball is seen from an overhead angle, it presents a far more impressive bulk than the facial wedge. As we observe the head from a high position, from the top the crania vault dominates the narrow, con stricted mass of the face coming from under the projecting...

## The Arms are Third in Importance

In our proposed sequence of figure sketching, we have so far discussed two stages of the notational order 1 the torso masses, and 2 the legs. Now we propose the third factor in this sequence the arms are third in importance in the sketching order. While movements of the arms do not cause major shifts of the torso or displacement of the legs, the arms are capable of great versatility of movement which cannot be equaled by the other members. No matter how they move, whether singly or together,...

## The Legs are Secondary

We have stated the necessity of using a new order of form in drawing the figure in deep space. Our initial assertion has been that the torso is first in importance. Following the primary torso masses in this notational order, our rule proposes that the legs are secondary. The reason that the legs not the arms come after the torso masses is that the figure, in whatever action it takes, is for the most part related to the ground plane. It works against the pull of gravity, expressing weight,...

## The Torso is Primary

The reason for this statement will become clear after a few exploratory sketches have been made, and when we work out the following propositions. The torso mass is the central double form to which all other forms attach. Any movement in the upper or lower torso will immediately throw the secondary forms the legs, arms, and head out of their previous positions and into a new relationship. Here are four structured torsos, showing the ease with which figure notation may be indicated in a sequence...

## Column Forms of the Arms and Legs

The arm and leg masses have a general similarity and correlation of form. Described simply, the arm and the leg are elongated, jointed two-part members, each of whose parts has a modified cone or cylinder shape. Note that both the arm and the leg swivel, or rotate, high in the shoulder A or hip Al both have a bending, or rocking, joint in the middle of the member at the elbow B or the knee Bl and both have a terminal gyrating member, the hand or the foot, attached to a tapered base at the wrist...