Column Forms of the Arms and Legs

Arms Figure

The arm and leg masses have a general similarity and correlation of form. Described simply, the arm and the leg are elongated, jointed two-part members, each of whose parts has a modified cone or cylinder shape. Note that both the arm and the leg swivel, or rotate, high in the shoulder A or hip Al both have a bending, or rocking, joint in the middle of the member at the elbow B or the knee Bl and both have a terminal gyrating member, the hand or the foot, attached to a tapered base at the wrist...

Wedge Masses of Hand and Foot

Foot Diagram Instep

The terminal forms of the extremities, the hand and the foot, are decidedly wedgelike in character. These two wedges, however, are very different in structure. In the two examples which follow, the wedge forms of the hand and the foot have been supplemented by companion sketches to show the unique character of each. The hand in the drawing to the right shows how the fingers separate and become extremely active, performing an immense variety of actions. The foot in the drawing below shows its...

The Legs are Secondary

Figure Drawing Legs

We have stated the necessity of using a new order of form in drawing the figure in deep space. Our initial assertion has been that the torso is first in importance. Following the primary torso masses in this notational order, our rule proposes that the legs are secondary. The reason that the legs not the arms come after the torso masses is that the figure, in whatever action it takes, is for the most part related to the ground plane. It works against the pull of gravity, expressing weight,...

The Wedge Box of the Pelvis

Pelvis Drawing

The lower torso the pelvic mass has the general shape of a wedge box, in direct contrast to the upper torso the rotund barrel of the rib cage . After the rib cage, the pelvic wedge is the second largest mass of the body. Locked to the barrel by the tapering muscles of the waist, the wedge box is narrow at the top, broader at the base. Schematic rendering of the two torso masses the wedge box of the pelvis and the barrel of the rib cage. In the normal, erect attitude of the body, the two torso...

The Arms are Third in Importance

Cylinder Figure Drawing

In our proposed sequence of figure sketching, we have so far discussed two stages of the notational order 1 the torso masses, and 2 the legs. Now we propose the third factor in this sequence the arms are third in importance in the sketching order. While movements of the arms do not cause major shifts of the torso or displacement of the legs, the arms are capable of great versatility of movement which cannot be equaled by the other members. No matter how they move, whether singly or together,...

Shape Masses of the Head Ball and Wedge

Pectoral Muscle

Different views of the head expose different dominant forms. The cranial ball, for instance, is usually considered fairly equal in size to the lower facial wedge. This is especially apparent in straight-on, front views. But when the cranial ball is seen from an overhead angle, it presents a far more impressive bulk than the facial wedge. As we observe the head from a high position, from the top the crania vault dominates the narrow, con stricted mass of the face coming from under the projecting...