## Perspective

It is very important for the student to understand something about perspective in order to be able to plane chairs, tables, etc., in his drawings; rugs and squares on floors must be drawn according to rule. A few simple rules are here given to aid the student in the perspective needed -n fashion drawing. Study these rules carefully and apply them when copying pictures.

When copying the chart, draw in large enough scale to enable you to work well; these illustrations are very small. Be very accurate as every fraction of an inch will tell. Use a ruler on all straight lines and a compass for circles.

There are two kinds of perspective, parallel (or one point) perspective, and angular (or two point) perspective.

The horizon (H) is an imaginary horizontal line, where earth and sky seem to meet; it is high or low according to the elevation of the observer.

Examyle. A person on a mountain ran vi«w more of the surrounding country than if he were on the level, hence the horizon will be high as it is directly on a line with his eyes.

Place your pencil across your eyes, if you can see just over the top you have the horizon line.

The point of sight (PS) is an imaginary point on the horizon directly in front of the eyes. The direction of rision is an imaginary line from the eye to the point of sight.

The picture plane is a vertical plane on which the picture is drawn.

The ground plane is the plane on which the observer stands.

The place he stands (S) is called the station point, Fig. 3. This is the eye of the observer.

•The picture plane is perpendicular to the ground plane.

Example. Place a large plane of glass perpendieular to the ground. Place a cube on the other side a little way ba<k. Keep the eye steady and trace on the glass the outline of the cube. If this is done accurately, you wJl have a picture of the cube in perspective. Close one eye while doing this.

All parallel lines which run directly away from the observer are called converging lines. Converging lines which arc perpendicular to the picture plane vanish in the point of sight. (Fig. 1) and (Fig. 5 3 ft.)

Converging lines which are not perpendicular to the picture plane but run obliquely away from the observer, vanish in a point on the horizon, but not in the point of sight. (Fig. 5 (2 ft.))

The prime vertical (PV) is a vertical line drawn perpendicular to the horizon. It passes through the point of flight and through the station point. (Fig. 3.)

Study Fig. 3. H is the horizon, PS is the point of sight, S is the station point. Place the station point at a distance of the diagonal of the picture plane. PV is the prime vertical, abed is the picture plane.

D and D' are distance points, or as far as the observer can see on each side of the point of sight. From PS to D equals from PS to S. D2 is one-half this distance; its use will be explained later.

When wishing to represent objccts by measurement, a measuring scale can be used in the foreground. This measuring scale should be the actual measurement in feet and inches. As objects recede, they appear smaller, just how much smaller can be determined by using this scale.

In Pig. 5 let us call the spaces in the foreground feet. If a six-foot post were plaeed close to the (glass) picture plane (on the other side), it would appear six feet, or life ?ize; if placed farther back it would look smaller. See the posts.

To place a six-foot post a distance back, count off three feet on the scale, eonnect the ends with PS. Any horizontal line (parallel to the picture plane) between these lines will equal three feet. The farther back the shorter three feet will appear.

Take the three feet in the distance, double it and stand it up on the three-foot line. This makes six feet in the distance; or take the six-foot measure on the scale, find six feet on the ground in the distance, then stand it up.

parallel perspective

An object is in parallel perspective whrn one of its sides is parallel with the picture plane, Fig. 1.

Draw the picture plane, the horizon, the point of sight. Draw the fronts of the blocks, then the converging 'ines, then the backs of the blocks. Tlace the rug on the floor, using the same rule.

The block at the left of the point of sight exposes its right side. The block at the right exposes its left side. The block in the center has both sides hidden

Remember a block, chair, table or any object lower than the level of the eye w ¡11 show the top, so all converging lines wflj run up to the point of sight.

Objects higher than the level of the eye will extend higher than the horizon, and all converging lines above the eye will run down to the point of sight. (Fig. 6.) The relation of the object to the horizon determines the size of the objeet. When draw ing children, make a high horizon, this will make them look small.

If an entire object is above the level of the eye, you see its under part. A plane on a level with the eye has the appearance of a line. If below the eye, it exposes its upper part. If above the eye, it exposes the under part. The higher or lower a plane is placed, the more one can see of its under or upper surface. A plane at a distance loses in depth.

Fig. 2 is a room in parallel perspective. Find H, PS, and the converging lines. Study the lines of the bureau which is built in the form of a block. The top ol the bureau is below the eye and the top of the back above the eye.

Build all furniture away from the wall from the floor up. Note the lines for the beginning of a table. The floor l 'ies converge (up) to PS. The eeiling lines converge (down) to PS. When drawing bureaus, chairs, etc., the student is inclined to show too much of the top planes. Fig. 4 shows how to obtain the correct measurement. ^

First study Fig. 3. Draw picture plane, horizon, point of sight, prime vertical, station points and distance points. As the paper is rarely large enough to draw DSD', we use one-half the distance (D') and one-half the measurements on the measuring scale.

We are to decide how much to show of the seat of the chair, Fig. 4. A is the length of a horizontal line in perspective; to obtain the same length on the converging line draw the broken line (auxiliary line) from the end of A equal to one-half the measurement of A. Draw a dotted line from the end of the auxiliary to 1)'; this will eut the converging bne the correct length or so that a=A. Use whole measurement and dotted line to 1) or half measurement and dotted line to D2.

To cut the converging line coning forward from A, connect the end of the auxiliary with the opposite 1)2. This makes A=a = aa, Fig. 4.

Lines drawn trom both ends oi the auxiliary to the picture plane will give one-half measurement of A, or on the measuring scale, the actual size in feet or inches. This rule will be very helpful when drawing windows and doors which open toward you.

One picture I saw will explain the usefulness of this rule. The window was divided into two parts, being on hinges. These opened toward me, the mistake being that one part was large enough to cover the whole window when closed.

Use this rule to ascertain the length of the converging lines of the chair, Fig. 4, and the table and bureau, Fig. 2.

To obtain the depth of the window, drop lines to the floor converging line.

### Place the rungs of the chair according to rule.

The back of the chair slants back slightly. Parallel oblique lines in the air converge to the same point on the prime vertical. In this case they meet below the horizon. If the slant were in the opposite direction, they would meet above the horizon. Obtain the slant of one side of the back, then draw the other side to the same point.

Study Figs. 6 and 7, which show- how a circle or an oval can be drawn in perspective. Draw a circle in full view, enclose with a square, cross the square from corner to corner up and down and across through the center, and again up and down and across where the circle meets the cross lines. Continue these cross lines to PS. Place the circle at the junction of these lines on the converging square, Fig. 7; this will give you a vertical ellipse (or a circle in perspective).

A horizontal circle in perspective may be obtained by filling the top converging plane with the same kind of lines. This rule will help you when drawing oval mirrors, children's hooples, curves on furniture, etc.

Draw an oval mirror on the bureau in Fig 2. Draw a basket in Fig. 8.

angular perspective

An object is an angular perspective when neither side is parallel with the picture plane. In Fig. 9 we have a box in angular perspective.

Draw picture plane, horizon, point of sight, prime vertical and station point, also distance points the same as you did in parallel perspective. The measuring scale in the foreground may also be used but instead of using D and D' use M and M'.

You will note that this station is not If the diagonal of the picture plane.

Remember, when neither side of the object is parallel to the picture plane, both sides are on the slant.

To draw the cube, draw the height, and one vanishing line to the horizon; where it touches the horizon we call V or vanishing point. You may place this line on any slant. When drawing from a real cube, hold your pencil along the line and get the direction this way. Remember, if the near edge of the cube is on the prime vertical at an angle of 45°, you see as much of one side of the cube as you do of the other. Both sides will vanish at equal angles ami the vanishing points will iall on D and D', but the minute you move the cube at another angle or change its position to the right or left, the vanishing points will change. So in a room, different obiects have different vanishing points while objects in parallel perspective all vanish in the point of sight.

This cube is to the right PS. You see more of the one side than you do of the other, the vanishing line will fall elsewhere on the horizon. The greater the slant of one side the more gentle the slant of the other, the vanish ig point on the side with the greater slant will be nearer PS than the other vanishing point.

You know the angle of the object is really a right angle, so after finding one vanishing point V, drew the line from V to S (or station point), and at the station construct a right angle. Continue this Lne to the horizon, which will give W or the other vanishing point.

You know that parallel oblique li les vanish in the name point, so the parallel sides of the cube \ anish in the same points. How much of the side is seen wc determine by M and M' instead of D and D'.

Using a compass and with V as a ccnter and VS as a radius, mark off the horizon M. With V' as a center and V'S as a radius, mark off the horizon M'. These points are used as D and D' in parallel perspective.

Draw the auxiliary lines the same length as the height of the cube, then the dotted line to Hi and M'. The parallel sides of the cube vanish to the same points. Carry measuring lines forward to obta<n the size on the scale.

Fig. 10 is an ancular view of a room; it is like the inside of a large box.

Draw the picture plane, horizon, point of sight, prime vertical, station point, distance points and measuring points as in Fig. 9. The lines of the cciling dime down to V and V'. One vanishing point is not on the paper, so slip another paper under your drawing, extend the horizon and continue the converging lines to the vanishing point.

Thp l;nes of the door follow the wall. The lines of the seat follow the other wall, and therefore the vanishing points for walls, door and seat are the same.

A room in parallel perspective may contain objects which arc in parallel perspective and objects which are in angular perspective. If several objects in a room are at different angles, each one has its own vanishing and measuring points, while the converging lines of the parallel objects vanish in the point of sight, the same as the lhics of the room. A room in angular perspective may contain objects at the same angle and objects at different angles and objects in parallel perspective.

Cut out a picture of a room with furniture in angular and parallel perspective, paste the cut-out on paper, and extend two converging lines; where they meet will be the honzon.

layouts for newspapers and catalogues

By this time the student should have learned to draw the fashion figure in the front, back, side and sitting positions. He should have learned to sketch a garment from the model, and to place it on the figure. He should have learned also how to ink a drawing using the proper technique. To draw four or five figures may seem an undertaking and if one feels that he is slow in drawing one figure, he should keep on practicing until he can place one figure in, fairly quickly, that is getting the action and proportion without much difficulty.

A layout artist is one who draws the figures and their costumes, in a given space. Where many different articles of clothing, as hats, waists, corsets, dresses, etc., must be advertised, many business houses employ a staff of artists on the work, each artist doing the class of work that he is most proficient in. In such cases one drawing may pass through many hands before it reaches completion. The layout artist begins the drawing, another artist inks or paints the costumes, another the heads, and another thé detail work, etc. Wash drawings in black and white and in water color are done in these houses, and while this book does not take up wash work, the student of this book might become one of the artists to make the layouts for these wash drawings.

Taking it for granted that the student is to fill an order in all its parts, bear in mind the rule for enlargement.

The size of the plate is very important, it being the size of the picture when finished.

It should be interesting as well as help ful for the student to go through an engraving plant. As this may be impossible, a brief account of the photo-engraving process, by which line pictures are reproduced, is here given.

The drawing is first photographed, usually to a reduced scale, and brought down to a size much smaller than the original. In this ease all lines and dots will be reduced in size, and also the spaces between them. The photographic film is then toughened by a solution, stripped from the glass, turned, and placed over another sheet of glass with the positive side up. The glass plate carrying the turned negative is placed in a frame over a sensitized zinc plate and placed in the sun or under a powerful electric light. As the photograph is a negative, the lines of the drawing are transparent and the light shines through on the zinc plate, hardening it under the lines only. The part protected by the black portion of the film remains in its natural condition.

The plate is then inked and afterward washed. The hardened part, only, retains the ink, thus leaving a copy of the drawing on the plate. A fine powder (dragon's blood) is sprinkled on the plate, and adheres to the ink parts only, thus protecting the lines. The back of the plate is protected by a coating of asphalt varnish.

The plate is given several " bites " in acid, which eats away the surface not protected. As the bite eats sideways as well as down, the plate is sprinkled several times, with the powder, during the biting process. The " bite " eats between lines and dots, leaving the image in relief on the plate. From this relief the drawing may be printed.

A draw ing whieh is to be reduced by the photo-engraving process must be large enough so that the lines may be clean cut and distinct. If there is much detail, there must be room enough for careful drawing. Lines that are crowded will run together when reduced.

On the other hand a drawing, f made too large, will lose in value when reduced.

As a rule the original drawing is larger than the plate, although it may be the same size or even smaller. In the latter case it will be enlarged when reproduced.

the method of eniargement

Where drawings are to be made for reproduction fcy printing, the customer will give the artist the size of the plate which will be the size of the picture when reproduced.. The artist leaves a margin on the left-hand side and at the bottom of his paper. He then draws the exact size of the plate in the lower left-hand corner and a diagonal line through the opposite corners, extending it indefinitely. (See Figs. 1 and 3.) Fig. R is the size of the plate. The plate is to contain one figure.

Extend the line b far enough to give a good height to draw the figure. Draw c to the diagonal fine. Draw d from w here c touches this line, to a. When reduced, the rectangle a, b, c, d will be n the same proportion as Fig. R. Any horizontal and vertical fine meeting on the diagonal will mark off the same proportion.

The proper size space having been determined, fill in this space with one figure as in Fig. 2. The customer is paying so much for every square inch of metal plate, consequently, he does not wish to waste space; make the figure touch the edges of the plate on all bides,

Fig. 3 is the beginning of a layout for three figures. Fig. 4 is the way to space the figure. Fig. 5 is the way to place the figures.

Fig. 2 is a suit layout; other layouts (for hats, waists, underclothes, etc.) are enlarged in the same way. Leave at least one inch war gin, draw the size of the plate, enlarge it, then place as many ovals as there are to be figures. Place all ovah before drawing ihf figures.

When arranging several figures, mgike a variety of positions of heads, and a variety of positions of feet. Make the figures express interest in each other. Newspapers and some business houses require " swingy " figures w ith plenty of dash and " go." Many pattern houses are more conservative and like the figures more normal. Some bouses have the figures drawn on separate papers. These they cut out and paste on a large sheet of paper in an arrangement to suit themselves. In this case they give the artist the height of the figures to be drawn.

If one figure is supposed to be at a little distance back of the others, follow the rules of perspective and make the far figure smaller. Keep the figures in the foreground the same size.

I'ig. 6 is a catalogue, underclothes layout. This layout calls for two figures and nine garments.

Keep the space well covered and the separate garments the size of the ones on the figures. The place at the upper right-hand comer is left for printing. It is called mortice. A figure or garment may slightly overlap the edge of the space for printing. Odd spaces may be filled in with backgrounds, such as tables, vases, mirrors, etc., or out-of-door views. See Lesson XXVII on Perspective.

Do not draw back figures unless your employer wishes the backs of garments illustrated.