If the student has been successful with the front figure and remembers its proportions and how to start the drawing, he will be somewhat at home when studying this lesson. As in Lesson XVII, the figure is not nude but ready for a garment, as are also the figures in Lesson XXIV and Lesson XXV.
Draw fig. 1 and place Fig. 2 on it. This is a three-quarter back view, the figure measuring seven and three-quarter heads high.
In the back figure, the legs join the body below the middle and the waist-line curves up, not dow n. The head is a three-quarter ba*,k view, although a profile or seven-eighths front head may be placed on this body. Do not turn the head too far around to the front. Try turning your own head toward your back, and do not make the mistake of putting an almost full face on a back figure.
Note the hair lines, which are brushed up to the top of the head. The ends of these lines in the back form a curved up line like the back collar lina.
In this view of the head, the ear is nearer the front, and the line for the neck breaks into the face, as it is on this side of it.
The trapezius muscle breaks into the neck, showing that the face and throat are forward, the throat ibeing lost somewhat.
The far ¡shoulder is longer and is more sloping than the near one.
The center line of the body takes two reverse curves; beginning at the neck it curves in, then out for the shoulders, in again for the waist, out again over the hips and buttock, in again to where the legs ioin the body.
Study the little sketch of the nude back and of the trapezius muscle as it fits on the back of the h^ad.
Do not curve the center line too much for the fashion figure. See how the bust goes around to the front as also do the amis.
Use previous instructions when drawing the legs and feet.
When placing a dress on this figure, have the lines of the dress conform to the action of the figure as in Lesson XVIII
When the arm is bent and extended forward. the break of the sleeve at the supinator longus takes the opposite direction from the front view, showing that the upper part of the arm is on this side of the lower. The lower portion of the arm is foreshortened.
When illustrating the back of a costume, use a back figure going the same way as the costume sketch to be illustrated. See Lesson II on the back form.
Draw back figures in corsets and in underclothes. These are harder to find than front figures. Keep everything that will help you, even upper and lower parts of figures.
Compare several back figure«. See f you can combine them in one drawing. Always use figure« facing the same way
the side figurf
The side figure is not as frequent in fashions as the front view, as it does not show a costume in all its parts. However, it is graceful and artistic, and the student should be as familiar with it as with the front view.
This figure measures seven and three-quarter heads high.
The side view is inclined to look somewhat taller than it is, the side of the body being narrower than the front.
If the student can draw a graceful figure in all positions, he can use the knowledge gained in decorative work, such as cards, book covers and advertisements. See Lesson XXX.
Keep in mind all points regarding the profile leg. As the inner view of the profile leg is slightly different from the outer, sketches are given here of the straight and bent knee.
As this figure is ready for a corset, note the long straight line in front, and the long curved line in the back, which does not show where the legs join the body. See the separate sketch of this.
Re sure to show the plane on the shoulder, which is distinct from the arm.
See the clavicle in the first drawing, which extends from the pit of the neck to where the arm begins.
When the arm is extended forward, note the square effect on the back, caused by the shoulder blades. This is also noticeable whfn the arm hangs straight down.
The body may bend at the waist forward and side-ways, but in fashions, we keep the figure erect, with the head on an upward turn, unless the figure is interested in some object and is inclined to bend the head downward. In this case the eyes must be lowered as well.
Refer to Lesson XVII for proportions of the figure.
If the features (if a figure are not clearly defined, use other features, but be sure they belong to a head in the same position.
It is better to find a satisfactory figure from which to draw, but the student may combine parts' of different figures if he understands their construction.
the sitting figure
As the figure in this lesson is sitting, the horizontal part, which is resting on the bench, is lost in the height of the figure.
The legs ioin the body in the middle of the figure, but not in the middle of the drawing.
Let us divide the drawing into three equal parts. From the head to below the bust is one, to where the body bend? is two, to the bottom of the foot is three.
Remember the figure bends where it . sits and again at the knees, the leg flattening out slightly where it rests on the bench.
Do not draw the near bide of the bench close to the under side of the knees.
Try sitting on a chair, observing how your knees extend past the edge. It is possible to sit lar back, but one seldom does.
Study the sketch of the outside bent knee, the inside one being illustrated in the last lesson.
Draw the far leg through the near one as indicated by the dotted lines.
A figure may sit or recline quite differently from this, so draw sitting figures in all positions. A sitting figure may be bent more than a standing one.
Draw the sitting figure in underclothes and in dresses. Study the fines of the dress, how they fit around the figure, fall from the edge of the bench and from the knees. Study the lines of the main wrinkles. Study the wrinkles in the bent arm which are mostly on the inside. On the extended arm they pull as the arm is thrust out.
An aim will show the inside of the sleeve at the wrist, unless the arm is turned back, as the arm placed behind this figure. Bear this in mind when placing cuffs on sleeves.
The far armhole forms a reverse curve, the lines for the bust extending to the center of it.
As under the arm is on a itifferent plane from the front of the body t s often shaded.
It is suggested that when a wide line is placed around a careful drawing, all ol the heavy line be allowed to be on the outside of the pencil line. If brought within its border, the shape will be destroyed Note for example, a carefully diawn arm.
textures and detail work
The representation of textures comes under the general classification of detail work. It requires great accuracy to be a detail artist. Many artists devote their whole time to this type of work.
To draw the human figure correctly, and to be able to group figures, should be the aim of all students of fashion drawing; but they should be competent to do detail work as well. When filling an order in all its parts, the artist needs to be lamiliar with textures. He must be able to make the drawing for a silk dress convey the impression of silk, etc.
The student of this lesson needs first to be able to render good ink lines. Then study textures carefully from catalogues, and from the goods themselves. Consult the lists of materials given at the end of the lesson. If you are not conversant with them all, examine them in the stores or obtain samples.
To form a texture, the lines of the drawing must take the form of the weave, and the whole mass of lines must follow the form on which the texture is placed. Review Lesson VIII, as you must have a good foundation on which to place the lines. For example, when drawing a basket, the 'mes take the shape of the straw, and also of the basket, the imagination does the rest. The same kind of lines might be used for a worsted sweater, and if placed on a nicely drawn sweater, we recognize the material.
Be careful of the outline and have a good foundation of stripes or plaids on which to place the texture, unless the texture has no noticeable direction of line.
Study the eight examples given of flat pieces of materials. Fig. 1 is chinchilla, 2 and 3 arc crochet or knitted worsted, 4 is corduroy; a flat piece would not be shaded but on the figure the shading helps the form, Fig. 5 is outing flannel or cotton goods, 6 is rough cloth; if very rough, allow the rough edges to form the edge of the garment. Fig. 7 is moire silk, 8 is dimity or swiss; use fine lines for thin goods, very fine lines for chiffon. Fig. 9 is lace, 10 is embroidery; work out the pattern carefully, placing a shadow under each design.
Criss-cross the mesh in either squares or diamonds. Do not make the mesh round.
Much detail work is worked out in white water-color paint, used thick from a jar. This is applied with a fine sable hair brush. All wash drawings have the lace and embroidery worked out this way, a flat tone of gray paint being first applied as a background for the lace. Always allow this to dry before applying the white paint.
Fig. 11 represents black silk. Draw the outline of all parts to be inked in, lea-ring high lights on top of XX. The solid ink parts fit into each other in a son of lighting effect.
Fig. 14 is part of a light silk skirt, Fig, 13 is dark silk; another kind of stroke which gives a very pretty silk effect. Fig. 12 is a loose sketchy way of placing net all Gver a skirt, the lines of the net being more apparent in the shadow s. For white lace, rendered in white paint, this order is reversed. For catalogues this would not be accurate enough, as the customer has only the picture to order from.
Study carefully the pen lines of artists, and try to reproduce the same kind of lines. If you do not succeed in this, take a sheet of tracing paper and trace their lines with pen and ink. Make a line clean cut as instructed in Lesson XIX.
list of costume materials
Silk. Brocade bengaline, chiffon, chiffon taffeta, China silk, charmeuse, crêpe de Chine, crêpe mêteor, crêpe duchesse meteor, crêpe chiffon, Dresden silk, Dresden chiffon, faille, foulard, georgette crêpe, gros de Londres, grosgrain, imperial dress satin, Japanese silk, Japanese habutai, khaki, mall, moire, mousseline, marquisette, grenadine, military striped silk, Melba silk, moire velour, ottoman, pussy twill, pongee, punjab, pompadour striped silk, satin majestic, silk poplin. Shantung, taffeta, tussah silk, velour, velvet.
Cotton. Batiste, cordeline, chambray, corduroy, crash, crêpe, cretonne, Canton flannel, Cossack linen, Dresden voile, Devonshire cloth, English flannel, flaxon, galatea, honey-comb cloth, khaki, lawn, linen, linene, madras, needle cloth, nainsook, organdie, outing flannel, piqué, percale, popl'n, repp, ramie linen, Russian cord, sateen, seersucker, voile, velveteen, Venetian linen.
Wool. Albatross, alpaca, beige, broadcloth, prunella, Bolivia cloth, cashmere, camel hair cheviot, chinchilla, chiffon cloth, duvetyn, iersey cloth, flannel, Henrietta cloth, mohair, melton, nun's veiling, Palin Beach cloth, poplin, Rugby cloth, Russian cord, serge, stockinette tweed, terry cloth, tartan serge, voile, voile de soie, velour de laine.
Lace. Cluny, Chantilly, craquela, duchess, filet, gold lame tissue, gold brocade, Irish point, metal lace net, point d'esprit, radian» lace, shadow lace, Valenciennes, point de Venise, rose point, point d'Alen-çon, Brussels point d'Argentan, .Angleterre, Limerick.
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