## Lesson Xxi parasols

Parasol? are very interesting and they are not hard to draw if one understands their formation

Begin with Fig. 1. Place the stick through the ellipse at a right angle to it. The stick must be in the middle and be continuous where it goes through the silk.

If you show much of the outside, show but little of the inner part. The less you observe of the top of the parasol, the more you see of the inside, Fig. 4, and the less of the short end of the stick.

In Fig. 3 part of the ruffle on the far side is hidden.

In the Japanese parasol, you view the inside. The stick must go through the middle and the ribs must curve to form the hollow of the parasol. They extend past the edge. Thin parasol does not take a perfect round, it being viewed on a slant. The stick must rest on the shoulder and fit in the hand. The stick may be ruled to obtain a straight line.

Fig. 5 shows where the ribs join the center and the supports from the stick to the ribs.

Fig. 7 is the outside only. Note the center and how the ribs curve, vanishing on the far side, and extending past the edge on the near side. Study the parasol carefully, and notice how the curve of the far side is less than the curve of the near side.

Draw the closed parasol. Make it slim. See bow the openings fall.

Draw the layout, place the loops on it, then the ends of the ribs which form a circle around the stick.

The upper part of the stick is usually less than the silk part.

An open parasol resting on the ground is bound to showr the inside.

The average parasol has eight ribs.

construction of the parasol in different positions

furs and fans

The student must learn to dress his figure warmly for winter and to convey the effect of coolness, for summer; so we have two extremes, furs and fans.

There are many kinds of furs; a catalogue on the subject will give the different kind of technique, or lines used to represent the texture of the article.

If the fur has long hairs, use long lines; if curly, use curly ones. The long or curly lines may be massed in places to f< >rm the shadows or indications of the lur. Fur should look full and the ):nes must follow the shape of the fur piece.

Follow the lines for the neck piece, Fig. 1.

The fines for the fur fall down towards the front, while on the shoulder they go toward the back.

Draw the main shape of Figs. 1 and 2, then the lines for the fur, which form the edge. Make the fur look full, especially so at the tails, Fig. 2.

Fur trimming which is joined in the middle causes the fur to fall both up and down. Note the different direction of lines where the fur is joined. Make the fur full at the edges and where it wraps around XX, Fig. 3.

Short fur is drawn with short lines, Fig. 4, the thickness of the fur extending past XX.

Draw the round muff. See how the lines follow around the muff and give it shape. There is a plane at the end (which is flat) with a round hole in the middle, but the end takes the shape of an ellipse, as it is viewed in perspective. See Lesson XXVII on perspective. The hole is nearer the far side.

Watch the lines carefully as they go around the muff and around the hole.

In the flat muff the lines follow the form As the muff is flat, the lines are straighter and the plane at the end is narrow. Note the lines as they go around the muff and around the hole.

For. all fur obtain a good outline first on which place the correct lines.

fans

All. sticks for a fan must meet m one point, which is in the hand.

Draw the end sticks making them meet, the top of the fan, the middle stick, and the one half-way between it and the end sticks. These divisions may be divided and sub-divided. Sticks are often drawn with a double line.

A fan partly open will take the lines of the plaits on a skirt. In this position the middle sticks are hidden where they join the center.

On these foundations any kind of a fan may be created. If the shape at the top is different irom this set curve, draw it so, but remember the principles stated.

Feather fans are very popular in fashions.

The student should make a large collection of pictures of furs durng the winter, as he may wish to use them in summer for the following season.

Try placing a tur texture all over a coat. For this a good copy is needed.

Remember black fur will have white lines. A white fur against a black background is very effective.

the generai jirection of lines for fcrs and f\ns!