If the student understands the construction of the features and the head as given in Lesson XIV, also the. few points regarding the hair, he will be able to render these three heads with ease. Remember the hair must fit the head and be soft and wavy, the lines following the direction of the head and hair where rolled.
the iull iront h^ad
On the full front view of the head the hair is parted at the side, drops on the forehead, goes toward the back, fits around the head at the temples, and goes away from the face over the ears, The lines should be broken on the edges and fit between each other in a soft, curvy effect. Draw iust a few 1 nes at first, in the right direction
When dark hair is required, continue to till ;n between these lines or make the lines heavier in the hollows of the hair and underneath the puffed out places.
the tiirle quarteh head
In the three-quarter view, the hair is brushed directly back, fitting around the head toward the back at the temples and curling around the .cheek bone. Do not show too much of the hair on the lar side of the three-quarter face.
tfe profile head
In the profile view, the hair, being parted at the side, follows the head n all directions.
When the hair is bvilt up, that part w ill proiect past the normal head line, while the flat part will cling closely to it. Light hair has black lines indicating the direction. Black hair has white lines, taking the same direction.
In the lower profile the hair is arranged quite differently, consequently the lines will fall in a different direction; but observe that they fit. the head. See Lesson XIX on Pen and Ink Lines.
Get the direction of all lines, first with pencil, then with a pen, then ink in with a brush, leaving the direction white (or the surface of the paper). As the hair is soft at the edge, do not continue the solid mk to the extreme limit, but drawr fine lines which extend past the solid mass.
Study the curl. See how the lines fit around to form the curl.
On the dark side the lines are heavy and on the light side fine lines are draw n which fit between the dark ones. Note the hole formed at the bottom. Notice how the wrong side of the loose part is exposed to view and how the linos fit around this part more loosely. When drawing a black curl, obtain the general direction of the lines, then fill in until dark enough.
to place the hat on the hf.ad
Never draw the hat and place the lace under it. Always draw a full head and put the hat upon it.
The hat should be placed on the head to give stylish effect, lip it slightly to one side. If this is done, one of the eyebrows will be hidden. The crown must fit the head, and the far tide of the brim must be continuous.
After studying these two lessons, study pen-and-mk heads in the fashion papers. Be sure the heads are normal before attempting to draw them. Keep all rules in mind when copying th^m, and you wll find you can create a type of face which is strictly original.
After finishing a drawing of any kind, decide just what 3 ou have learned 011 that drawing. Be systematic in this and you will continue to improve.
the construction of thf head the full front head
Head No. 1 is a view directly in front, in a perfectly straight position. The placing of the features was given in Lesson XIII. The ears are between the eyebrows and the nose.
After drawing the center lines and the cross guide lines at the correct distances, draw the features. Remember that there is the space of an eye between the eyes, and the space of half an eye between the eye and the edge of the face. Be careful to make the eyes mates and have them set the same under the lids.
In the three-quarter view, the far eye might be a trifle smaller, but never larger. Try to keep them the same size.
The clavicle (C), or collar bone, extends from the pit of the neck (PN), to where the arm ioins the body. It slants slightly backward, which shows that the chest is well forward from the shoulders. Tne lines of the neck extend irom . the ears to the middle of these bones.
The sterno mastoid muscle (M) runs from the ears tO-lhe;pit of the neijk. In
3f" cKf the front viewr of the ne<*k this muscte gives the neck a slight outward curve. In the front view the cheek bone is not as apparent as in the three-quarter vi^jr.
The 'me of the outline-of tne face, from the ear, descends, slanting in vard to the jaw bone, then in s■-;aii|»j|ty&e prominently to the Ihin, which runs "straight across. The hpad fits on the neck at the ears, but seen in this position it appears opposite the jaw bone.
The trapezius muscle (TZj is on the fhoulders, fitting on the clavicle in front and extending down the back in the shape of a V. The general direction from the ear to the shoulder curves in, but remember that TZ curves out, as do all the muscles of the body.
Head No. 2 is tipped backward, also sideways, consequently one sees under the chin and loses the top of the head. The further back the head is thrown, t¿Jje more pronounced this is. See Head No. 3. A head in this position causes the construction lines to curve up. The more the head is thrown back, the more the lines curve and the closer together they appear. The neck appears longer as one views more of it.
All features must follow these guide lines.
In Head No. 3 one sees where the neck really joins the head.
Note the triangle formed on all faces. This triangle takes in the front of the face, While the remaining portion is on the side. When the head is tipped down, all construction lines curve dowk. The nose appears longer, the under pltfne and the chin are lost, and one cafi seé more of the top of the head. The more the head is tipped down the more pr «nuiinred these effects are. The neck becomes short and the top of the head full (.Head No. 4). As one Ini?ks down on this head the upp^r lip appears thinner and the eyebrows nearer the eyes.
thf profile head
Draw the correct oval for the profile head on which place Head No. 5.
In Lesson XIII, you learned the outlinp of the features, also about the forehead bone, and the lines of the chin. The jaw bone runs up to the ear, which is as far from the eye as from the mouth. The trapezius muscle is at the back of the neck, and, while the general direction of the back of the neck slopes n, you must have the feeling of a slight outward effect for this muscle.
Note the diagonal lines from the front to the back of the neck, showing that the neck is higher in the back than 'n the front. Watch the front line of the neck where it joins the jaw, and the reverse curve which is more prominent in a man than a woman. A man's neck is shorter than a woman's, measuring from the nose to the chin the same as from chin to PN.
Do not draw a woman's neck too long.
the three-quarter head
In Head No. 6, which is the three-quarter view, the cheek bone is very noticeable. Note the outline of the far side of the face. The forehead bone projects, the outune going in slightly above it. The hue from this bone descends, goes into the eye, out to the cheek bone, down to the jaw bone. Show definitely where the line leaves the cheek and runs into the chin, which is straight across, but not as wide as in the full fcorti view. The jaw runs up to the ear, which is at the back of the head.
Remember to place three-quarter features on a three-quarter face and have the center line in the middle of the face.
the seven-eighths head
In the seven-eighths view, Head No. 0, the far side of the face is lost still more as are also the features. This view comes between those shown by Heads No. 5 and No. 6, therefore the ear is nearer the back than in No. 5 and not as near a« in No. G. In this view the line of the chin from the mouth is quite noticeable.
Draw the fashion Head No. 7, and note the three planes of the cap as they fit around the head.
Head No. 8 is the profile view tipped away from you. Study and draw this, applying all points learned in this lesson
Always construct a head by drawing the oval and placing all guide lines before attempting to draw the features. Practice drawing heads from the fashion papers. Copy them understanding^, using the charts as guides.
The student is advised to use pen-and-ink drawings to draw from as the lines can be seen plainly, but all photographs and wash drawings should be saved.
Select large pictures of heads and draw the construction lines through the propo^ places.
Study the people on the ears, also the advertisements in the cars. Be on the lookout everywhere for some point of information.
See on how many pictures you can applv the knowledge gained from this lesson.
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