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STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON IV

curve out, the goods being gathered in at the top. The form is narrower where sewed on than at the bottom. Notice the under part of this set form, the lines being somewhat the i^ame as the lines of an over-skirt.

In between these set forms the line of the bottom of the ruffle waves in and out, the set form being nearer to you than the wavy part.

All lines for the fullness must look as if they were pulled together at the top of the ruffle. The lines XX at the right side curve out to the right, and on the left side they curve out to the left.

A scant ruffle will have somewhat the appearance of the bottom of a full skirt, but the XX lines are more curved than the skirt lines. Materials like taffeta, calico, etc., which are stiff and heavy, will have rounding lines like the ruffle at the top of the lesson plate. Tulle, which is stiff but thin, will have lines which are straighter and sharper. (See Example.)

Draw the ruffle at the top of the page, and when you are convinced that you can do this satisfactorily, draw Fig. M.

After placing X's and O's for the bottom l;ne, draw guide lines the width ol the raffle on which place the ruffle.

The ruffle must go in and out of the fullness.

This skirt (Fig. M) is gathered at the top. The bnes of the fullness from the waist fall down between the lines of the fullness which run up from the bottom.

Study the lines of fullness on other drawings and notice that some lines are short, some long, and some meet in a V near the waist line. It the material is heavy, all 1'nes of fullness will go under the band, but if thin material is used some lines will fall short of the band and be hooked at the top.

All lines for fullness must be sharp and snappy. Practice such lines with bold strokes, on a separate piece of paper.

A ruching has the appearance of two ruffles, one turned up ami the other down, the lines being the same. It is darkest where gathered, which is in the middle. (See example.)

Apply this lesson as you did the previous ones.

How Draw Ruffled Skirts
placing the ruffle and tucks in and out of the fullness of a skirt

Lessons V and VI being devoted to waists, the student is expected to pay strict attention to all points relating to each drawing, as the waist is a very important feature.

If you succeeded with Lessons I and II, you will have no difficulty with this lesson, as the form is the same, but instead of very simple waists being placed upon it, something new is to be learned on each new-figure.

the plaited waist

After drawing the form for Fig. N, place the waist on the form, following all previous rules.

It will not be necessary to repeat all instructions as the student is supposed to have learned them by this time. All new information will be given for each figure, and when combined with previous lessons, there should be no difficulty in rendering Lessons Y and VI satisfactorily.

Fig. N shows a tight waist with deep plaits running over the shoulders. They follow the center line. It also has a vest, the V of which is on the center line and the opening under the first plait.

Follow Lesson II carefully in all details when putting on the waists, and note all guide lines on the new lesson plates.

The belt is flat and the buckle is placed on the center line, the buckle being merely suggested here. The buckle in detail is given below. Study it carefully. It is oblong in shape and fits over the belt, that is, the belt must run through. the buckle. See how the buckle curves to fit the waist. Make all widths even and place the hole and fastening over the center line.

The sleeve of Fig. N is tight on the inside and bloused on the outside. Note the guide lines of the sleeve form seen through the sleeve; the normal sleeve form being first drawn and the sleeve placed upon it afterwards.

Flare the gauntlet at the bottom, and place all buttons at even distances at the back of the sleeve.

The fullness at the top of the sleeve follows its form and at the bottom is only at the back.

thf ruffled waist

In Fig. P we have a waist with fullness but not bloused as in Lesson II. The fullness, being gathered at the belt, flares in a ruffle effect below it.

The right side of the belt laps over the left, past the center line. Make it definite which side of the belt is on top.

The ruffle is placed around the neck and falls in a jabot down the front of the waist, the lines being the same as the lines of the over-skirt. (Lesson III, Fig. G.) Here, as in the over-skirt, you observe the wrong side of the material.

In placing the ruffle and jabot, draw the small V for the neck, then the large V for the width of the jabot. Note how the lines of the large V curve around the form.

After ascertaining the width of the rulfle and jabot, draw them within these guide lines, applying the principles of Lesson III, Fig. G.

Like the panier (Lesson III, Fig. H) you see but little of the under surface of the goods on the far side.

The band on the sleeve fits tightly around the arm and is a continuation of the

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