In studying the human figure, each part will be dealt with separately, then the figure as a whole will be considered. The dressing-up process will then be considered, which will be extremely interesting, as the principles learned in the first ten lessons will apply.
In these lessons on anatomy, no attempt is made to teach the muscles, bones, and planes of the body, as used by artists who paint the nude figure from life; but a complete understanding of these lessons will enable the student to render in pen and ink the human figure as needed in the fashion field.
These plates are outline drawings, a good outline being a very essential point; and when one understands proportion, poise, and the outline, he has made great progress. . A few of the principal muscles and bones which come in contact with the outline are mentioned here, and the student should become very familiar with them.
There are many books on anatomy, which may be taken from the public libraries, and when one understands the outline construction as given here, he may go into the subject as deeply as he wishes.
Lesson XII deals with the features which are illustrated in the full, three-quarter, and profile views. After you understand the construction of the features, variations of position will not seem difficult.
the eye (full front view;
Begin with the full front eye in the upper left-hand corner of the lesson plate.
I N designates the inner part and is slightly lower than the outer part. Note the guide line which runs slightly up.
The diagonal cross line indicates the w idest part of the whole eye.
On the upper lid there are five planes, but we will reduce them to three. Note the direction of the three planes marked above the eye and the two planes below it.
As the upper lid projects over the lower, the eye-ball has a tendency to slant backwards at the bottom, which effect is not very noticeable in the front view.
The ball must fit well under the upper lid and not project.
The deep lashes on. the upper lid cause a shadow which hides the eye still more, giving it a soft expression. By continuing the ball through the upper lid one can prove if the ball is hidden enough.
The lower lid is soft and delicate and is often omitted in fashions. In pen and ink drawings you will observe a few lashes suggested on the upper lid, if so, draw them on the corresponding sides of both eyes. Some artists indicate the lashes all around both lids. If done correctly, this is very effective.
The eye-ball moves from side to side raising the lid as it goes.
In the front view the ball is round, as is also the pupil, the ball occupying about one-third of the width of the eye. Note the little catch light on the ball, which curves around it and gives the eye light.
Make, the eye in good proportion, tho whole length being twice the height.
the eye (three-quarter view)
If the construction of the full view of the eye is understood, the three-quarter view will seem very simple.
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