Types Of Portrait

Given the great variety of poses a human being can take on and the psychological wealth which characterizes every personality, the artist has to assess what 'pose' to suggest to the model so that these elements are displayed in the most suitable way to achieve a likeness. In addition, all individuals have their own characteristic posture and typical movements which are part of their 'being'. On the other hand, there are elements of physical behaviour and social convention which allow us to...

Proportions

When drawing the head it is necessary to make sure that the proportions, i.e. the relative dimensions between its various constituent elements (eyes, ears, nose, mouth - which we will examine one by one later on) are indicated correctly and precisely. Of course, heads vary greatly in size and in the combination of characteristics, but they can all be reduced to a proportional diagram which helps to simplify the shapes, to recognise their peculiar three-dimensional aspect, and also to position...

Technical Aids Photography

Photography is useful to record spontaneous and fleeting images of the subject, to have a point of reference when it isn't possible to organise sittings, and to portray children. Take photographs yourself modern automatic cameras make this easy even if you are not an expert as they should be a term of reference rather than images to copy passively. Allow for perspective distortion and, to avoid or reduce it, do not get too close to the subject. Use, if possible, natural lighting and avoid flash...

How To Get A Likeness

As we know, portraying a human subject means perceiving and representing both the physical and the psychological aspect of the model. To achieve a physical likeness see page 32 , pay particular attention to the overall shape of the head drawing 'from the general to the particular' and exactly evaluate your subject's proportions, both in the face as a whole and between its elements eyes, nose, mouth, etc. . To achieve a psychological likeness, converse with your model, try to understand their...

The working environment

Table Perspective Drawing Lessons

If you have your own studio, or at least, a room in the place where you live and you are determined to devote yourself body and soul to portraiture, you will find some furnishing accessories rather useful. For example a chair, an armchair or a small couch for the subject to be comfortable and relaxed on while posing a lamp which will allow you to adjust the intensity of the lighting so that the model is properly lit a radio or a small TV to make posing less of a burden for your sitter and for...

Introduction

A portrait is commonly perceived as the representation of a human being's features, whether the face, head and shoulders or the whole body. It has always been an important theme in figurative arts and a favourite with artists, who have found in it, not just a professional genre well rewarded and socially appreciated for its symbolic or celebratory value, but also an interesting opportunity to investigate the human condition in its physical and, most of all, psychological aspect. It is this...

Tools And Techniques

How Ink Face Using Cross Hatching

You can draw a portrait using any of the popular media pencil, charcoal, pastel, pen and ink, watercolour, felt-pen, etc. Each one of them, however, will produce different effects, not only due to the specific characteristics of the medium and the technique used, but also in relation to the characteristics of the surface on which it is drawn smooth or rough-textured paper, card, white or coloured paper, etc. The drawings shown on these two pages demonstrate how different media effectively...

Choosing The Pose

Usually, a portrait reproduces head and shoulders, i.e. the torso, but it could also include the arms, the hands or the whole body. If you draw from life make sure the model sits in a natural and comfortable position, and that their face is more or less level with yours. The pose should be relaxed, but clearly convey the subject's character to enable you to capture the psychological, as well as the physical likeness. It's better to choose a pose which highlights the somatic...

Sketching Faces

Ear Drawing

The ear is supported mainly by thin cartilage arranged in circumvolutions. Although its morphological characteristics vary greatly, its overall shape recalls a seashell and is fairly similar in both sexes. Ears are often partly hidden by one's hair and their expressive character depends on their precise position on the sides of the head, as I have shown in the sketches below. In an adult, the height of the ear corresponds, on average, to that of the nose in a child it looks rather big in...

The Mouth

Mouth Teeth Drawing

After the eyes the mouth is the second most expressive element of the face. The pinkish colour of the lips is due to the tissue they are made of, transitional between the mucous membrane found inside the mouth and the skin. When drawing the lips make sure that, above all, you carefully draw the line which separates them - ensure that it lies on the semi-cylindrical surface of the jaw bones and follows the rules of perspective I have already mentioned. The simple sketches shown below indicate...

Constructive Sketches

Drawing Faces Eyes Nose Mouth

The head can be compared to the geometric shape of an ovoid and this, at the beginning at least, makes drawing it simpler, as far as proportions, as well as light and shadows are concerned. Notice how the two ovoids which represent the face and the skull can be superimposed. However, the roughly round shape of the head can also be divided into flat areas. As a whole, these 'surface planes', are useful for concisely shaping areas of light and shadow. Try drawing surface planes on to photographs...

The Bones

Head And Cervical Vertebrae Sketch

The shape of the skull determines by and large the external morphology of the head and can be divided into two parts the brain case and the facial block, which comprises several bones tightly joined together to achieve a solid structure. The only mobile bone is the jaw. If you get the opportunity to observe a real skull or to buy a plastic one, practise drawing its main outline. Render it from different visual angles, as I have shown in these quick sketches, and apply the principles of...

The Muscles

Connection Between Ear And Eye

The muscles of the head are divided into two groups the muscles of facial expression, responsible for physiognomic expressions and the muscles of mastication, which move the jaw. They become stratified on the cranial bones whose external shape they follow pretty closely, as they are very thin. Also study the main neck muscles because, inevitably, they appear in nearly all portraits. BUCCINATOR DEPRESSOR ANQULlOi DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS DIGASTRIC Here I show the connection between the bone...

Perspective

Human Figure Perspective Sketch

Perspective is a graphic method which helps to represent spatial depth on a flat surface. Therefore, to be represented correctly, the head too needs to be drawn like any other object bearing in mind the rules of perspective. The diagrams shown below will be enough, I think, to remind you of some of the basic principles, such as the horizon line, the viewpoint and the vanishing points. If you imagine the head within a cube whose edges touch its most protruding points, you will find it easy to...

Lighting

Side And Back Lighting Portraits

Is not suitable for portraiture as it divides the face into two contrasting halves one lit, one in shadow. Sometimes it can be useful to convey strong relief. Is not suitable for portraiture as it divides the face into two contrasting halves one lit, one in shadow. Sometimes it can be useful to convey strong relief. When drawing a portrait it is very important to consider the direction, quality and intensity of the light falling on the model as it is thanks to light and shadows that we get a...

Portrait Studies

In this section I have put together a series of portraits, some of which were done specially for this book, and others which were drawn previously. Almost all of them are studies for oil paintings or for more elaborate drawings and I chose them because the intermediate stages of implementation, more than the 'finished' works are the ones which show how to recognise and tackle the problems of composition, pose, anatomy and working technique. H, HB and 9B pencil on 30 x 40cm 12 x 16in paper. The...

The Nose

Life Figure Drawing Female

The nose is rather difficult to represent as it sticks out of the face and therefore its appearance varies depending on the viewpoint. Its pyramid-like shape is partly due to two small, close together bones and partly to cartilages, and this can be seen clearly on its dorsum. Observe the sketches shown on these two pages and practise drawing the nose in various positions, referring to photographs if it makes it easier to understand its structure. Notice that the dorsum moves away from the...

Giovanni Civardi

Giovanni Civardi

First published in Great Britain 2002 by Search Press Limited, Wei I wood, North Farm Road, Tunbridge Wells, Kent TN2 3DR Originally published in Italy 1994 by II Castello Col lane Teen iche, Milano Copyright II Castello Collane Tecniche, Milano 1994 English translation by Julie Carbonara English translation copyright Search Press Limited 2002 All rights reserved. No part of this book, text, photographs or illustrations may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means by print,...

Method

Shadows The Face Drawing

In this chapter, up to page 37, I illustrate the stages one has to go through to draw a portrait. The method indicated is rather scholastic but useful to those new to portrait drawing. Once familiar with the elements which are essential to characterise a face, it will be easier and more spontaneous to move gradually from the first sketch to a more complex drawing and find your own, more immediate and personal, way forward. My advice is to do some of these exercises using live models and...

Eye Drawing Images

Fashion Designing Drawings Eyes

Once you have examined the overall structure of the head, you need to analyse carefully the individual details of the face, i.e. the nose, mouth, eyes and ears. It makes sense to be able to recognise the basic morphological, i.e. 'constructive' characteristics of each one, as by following them and precisely reproducing individual variations you will obtain a very good likeness. The eye is, perhaps, the most expressive element and it is therefore essential to draw it in the correct position and...

Portrait Composition

Drawing Facial Expressions

Composition involves arranging on the drawing surface the elements which make up the image we are set to represent. There are no firm rules except, perhaps, the one concerning the 'golden section' but rather principles relating to our visual perception, i.e. unity, contrast and balance. Portrait composition dictates that we make some choices straight away deciding whether to draw the full figure or just the head, and in this case, whether full-face, profile, three-quarter deciding whether to...