The following examples are meant to convey to the reader the extensive range of draughting facilities available from software associated with basic programs. Obviously there is a certain amount of overlap in the scope of programs and often alternative ways of performing similar operations.
Figures 3.6 and 3.7 show pictorial drawings of an engine development.
A pictorial view can easily be generated after drawing orthographic views, which give the dimensions in three planes at right angles to each other. Figure 3.8 shows a drawing of a cycle. Figure 3.9 demonstrates the realistic effect of rendering. The viewing point and orientation is adjustable.
Architectural drawings for the design of a shopping mall are reproduced in Fig. 3.10 and Fig. 3.11. They show the outline of the development and how the completed construction could appear.
Figures 3.12 and 3.13 illustrate an architectural drawing from two different viewpoints. Alternative simulations may be used to assist the client in the choice of colour for the finished building.
Design concepts, which are rendered clearly and convincingly, certainly aid at the stage where decisions need to be made to finalize aspects of shape, form and finish. The presentation of alternative solutions using the same master drawing is also an added bonus.
Engineered components are often designed for clients without a technical background. To be able to observe the final product in three dimensions with its approved finish and in an ideal situation will reduce design time. Many people have difficulty in reading drawings, but with a presentation of an internal building detail, which perhaps shows a slate floor, and coloured textured walls, then the client can understand exactly how the structure will look. The drawing bridges the communication gap.
Creating renderings is fast and since the data required is stored in the DWG file it cannot become separated from the component drawing. Menus and dialogue boxes are used. The program features include shading and ray tracing giving shadowing, reflection and refraction effects. A comprehensive library of materials and textures can be used to create a variety of surfaces, such as wood, glass, marble, granite, etc.
A wide selection of illumination tools and compatibility with associated software, allows the draughtsman to make walk-throughs, fly-throughs and animated product-assembly presentations.
Lighting studies are easy and accurate. You can produce a variety of artificial, natural and mixed lighting effects. It is possible to arrange directional lights in various combinations and locations and control such characteristics as colour, intensity, attenuation and shadowing.
In addition, a Sun Locator lets you work easily with sunlight effects. You can position the sun to a specific time of day and year to create realistic sun-shadow combinations. The feature allows architects to calculate, for example, whether a living room will receive enough sunlight at midday in late December. On a larger scale, in the design of shopping malls for example, the position of the sun in relation to a particular area can materially affect heating, lighting and cooling loads.
You will appreciate that these programs can help to confirm design decisions and prevent misunderstandings while they are still easy and inexpensive to remedy.
A perspective drawing of an internal part of a building in Fig. 3.14 indicates the style and character of a finished construction.
Examples of animated presentations are given in Fig. 3.15 and Fig. 3.16. The impact and appeal of sales iliterature is often enhanced by the use of theatrical effects.
BS 4006 gives the specification for hand operated square drive socket wrenches and accessories. The tools are manufactured from chrome vanadium steel and Fig. 3.17 and Fig. 3.18 show a presentation for a sales catalogue.
Figure 3.19 illustrates exploded three-dimensional views of a turbocharger for an automobile.
Figure 3.20 shows an application of AutoCAD LT where part of an assembly drawing has been copied into a word-processor and used to prepare a production-engineering document.
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