CAD is much more than drawing lines by electronic means. Similarly by the purchase of a CAD system, a design does not emerge at the push of a button. 'Buy a computer and you don't need a draughtsman' is also very different from reality. The engineering designer is very much responsible for decisions taken at all technical stages between conception and production. The computer is an aid and performs as it is directed with rapidity and accuracy. The following notes are included to indicate areas of useful activity to assist the draughtsman.
The preparation of two and three dimensional drawings and the projection of associated views is the 'bread and butter' work in the drawing office. Service manuals use exploded views so that people with no technical training can follow assembly sequences. Children stick together model kits with guidance using pictorial diagrams.
CAD programs are available where a three dimensional model can be produced automatically given two dimensional views. From the dimensions of the component, the computer will calculate surface areas, volumes, weights for different materials, centres of gravity, moments of inertia and radii of gyration it can also use the applicable values for stress and other calculations, which are a necessary part of design. Computer models permit a study of special relationships and applications are given in the chapter which follows. Models can be manipulated into pleasing forms for artistic approval before production work follows. Previous techniques included modelling with plasticine and plaster, and applications ranged from ornaments to boat hulls and car bodies. CAD has revolutionized modelling capabilities.
Sales departments utilize 3D illustrations in brochures and literature for promotional applications. Desk top publishing from within the company can very simply use illustrations generated as part of the manufacturing process. The scanning of photographs into a CAD system is also an asset especially as photographic work can be retouched, manipulated and animated. Multimedia applications with video and slide presentations form a large part of selling and advertising.
Structural design requires a thorough knowledge of engineering materials properties. Calculations of stress, strain and deflection are essential to determine proportions and dimensions in structural applications. Computers now have the ability to perform millions of calculations per second and with the availability of powerful desk top models, finite element analysis has developed as a principal method. One advantage of finite element analysis is that design engineers can produce better designs and eliminate dubious options during the conceptual design phase. CAD systems permit the rapid generation of models of proposed designs as wire frames. The component can be defined as a collection of small loaded elements. The computer memory stores details of all the geometric data to define each part of the frame. Numerical analysis will then verify whether or not the suggested design will be capable of supporting the expected loads. Formerly, stress calculations were time consuming and in the early days of computing, although the calculation time was considerably shorter, computer time was relatively expensive. This is now not the case and for this type of design work CAD is an essential tool in the drawing office.
CAD is very suitable for repetitive and fast documentation where a product is one in a range of sizes. Assume that we manufacture a range of motor driven pumps operating at different pressures. Many parts will be used in different combinations in the range and the computer database documentation is programmed accordingly. Company standard designs will be offered when enquiries are received. A computerized tender can be sent with the appropriate specification and technical details. On receipt of an order, all of the documentation relating to manufacture, testing, despatch and invoicing will be available. An obvious advantage is the speed of response to the customer's enquiry.
CAD will be linked to CAM (computer aided manufacture) whenever possible. Documentation will include parts lists, materials details of parts to be manufactured or bought out, stock levels, computerized instructions for numerical controlled machine tools, instructions for automated assemblies, welding equipment, etc. Printed circuit boards can be designed on CAD and manufactured by CAM.
Production tooling requires the design of many jigs and fixtures. A jig is a device which holds the component or is held on to the component, locating the component securely and accurately. Its function is to guide the cutting tool into the component or for marking off or positioning. A fixture is similar to a jig but it does not guide the tool. Generally a fixture will be of heavier construction and clamped to the machine tool table where the operation will be performed. Jigs are used frequently in drilling and boring operations. Fixtures are a necessary part of tooling for milling, shaping, grinding, planing and broaching operations. The use of jigs and fixtures enables production to proceed with accuracy, and hence interchangeability due to the maintenance of tolerances (see Chapter 19) and especially by the use of unskilled or semiskilled labour and robotics.
The traditional method of jig and tool draughting was to draw the component in red on the drawing board. The jig or fixture would then be designed around the component. This process ensures that the part is located and clamped correctly, can be loaded and unloaded freely, and that the machining operation can be performed without hindrance.
With a CAD system, the component drawing can be shown in colour on one of the 'layers' (see Chapter 3) and design work undertaken on the other layers.
Machining operations need to be checked to ensure that tools and cutters do not foul any other equipment in the vicinity. The path taken by the tool into its cutting position should be the most direct and the shortest in time. The actual cutting operation will take a different time and the tool may traverse the component several times, cutting away more material on each occasion. Machining sequences can be simulated on the screen and when the optimum method has been obtained, the numerical program prepared. All relevant data for the machining operation is converted into coded instructions for continuous production.
Programs are available for the economic use of metallic and non-metallic materials. Many engineering components are manufactured by flame cutting intricate shapes from plate or sheet and these need to be positioned to minimize scrap. The cutting head is guided by computer using the X and Y coordinates at each point along the curve. Other applications use a variety of cutters and saws to shape materials singly or heaped into a pile, such as foams in upholstery or dress fabrics.
The tool draughtsman, for example, will use many standardized components in tooling and designing associated handling equipment for production. If a range of parts is similar it is common practice to produce a single drawing with dimensions in a table of the separate features. A typical example is given in Fig. 7.2 and is the normal manual draughting procedure. CAD can however use a parametric technique where the component drawing is dimensioned by algebraic expressions understood by the computer. Each separate size of component will be given its own part number. When a particular part is required and called up, the computer calculates sizes, draws the part to the correct scale for the draughtsman to position where required on the assembly drawing. This is a very useful facility and only available through the introduction of CAD.
CAD always produces drawings finished to the same high standard, and of a uniform quality and style. All tracing costs are saved.
It will be seen from the above notes that CAD fits in with many of the separate procedures necessary for design and production, but it is vital that, before its introduction, software must be available with proven ability. Likewise, staff must receive training to extract the maximum advantages and benefits.
Draughting in an organization which uses CAD equipment does involve the question of security.
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