For the greatest impact, the hit drawing 5 should immediately follow drawing 1, without inbetweens. Drawing 9—the reaction drawing—should not be displaced as far from the center position (drawing 1) as drawing 5. The number of inbetweens between the keys should be varied according to the requirements of the scene, as well as the strength and speed of the impact.

Staggers, when fully understood, can be used for a multitude of effects. It is not merely in dynamic action that the stagger can be used. Fear, for example, can be beautifully portrayed with stagger techniques.

At one time I had to animate a character nervously walking to the end of a diving board. Initially, I wanted to have his knees rapidly knocking together. I realized, however, that this would not show the tension in the springy diving board, so I devised an action—with staggers—which solved both problems. I began by animating the character walking along the board. The further he went along the board, the further it dipped.

Then, I drew a second set of figures, identical to the first, except that, from the waist down, everything was animated as if the board had sprung back up slightly.


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