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More generally, with lip-sync dialogue, the animator first marks the dope sheet with all the accent points suggested by the repeated playing of the soundtrack to be animated. Then the animator circles the corresponding numbers for the animation drawings to establish the key drawings. After the key drawings are animated, the animator will probably draw the breakdown drawings before handing the scene on to the assistant for in-betweening. To avoid confusion, the animator should ask the assistant...

Staggers

O emphasize a specific action or reaction, the animator can exaggerate the movement with a take, sneak, or stagger. In animation, the take is one of the most powerful ways to register surprise in a character. Simply defined, a take is an exaggerated reaction to an event. If, for example, a character is running along and suddenly his arch-enemy jumps out in front of him, his first reaction is that of shocked surprise which is best underlined by his going into a take. A take is an overreaction...

Passing Position

Note, first, that in all walk drawings (with the possible exception of a character who is out of balance, such as a drunk), the body weight is always in balance with the leg positions. More important, the body is raised higher in the passing position than in the key extremes. This is because, in the passing position, the leg is straight beneath the body, and, since the leg does not shrink, it naturally forces the body upward. Now that the passing position is complete, the inbetween must be put...

Panning Peg Bars

Additional refinements to the lightbox might include a raised strip of wood along the bottom of the frame for holding pencils and a dimmer switch (instead of the on off switch) so that the intensity of light coming through can be varied. If you are constructing your own lightbox, it is advantageous to leave sufficient space to the right of the disk (if you are right-handed) or to the left (if you are left-handed) so there is room to place the camera instruction, or dope sheets, for easy...

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When the breakdown is completed, the assistant must put in the two in-between drawings drawing 3 in the middle of 1 and (5), and drawing 7 in the middle of (5) and 9. When all the inbetween drawings are completed, each is shot separately in sequence on a rostrum camera (usually two frames of film for each drawing, although for more sophisticated work it is often necessary to do one drawing per frame). There can be any number of equal inbetweens between two key drawings, but usually the animator...

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For the greatest impact, the hit drawing 5 should immediately follow drawing 1, without inbetweens. Drawing 9 the reaction drawing should not be displaced as far from the center position (drawing 1) as drawing 5. The number of inbetweens between the keys should be varied according to the requirements of the scene, as well as the strength and speed of the impact. Staggers, when fully understood, can be used for a multitude of effects. It is not merely in dynamic action that the stagger can be...

Field Widescreen

Cinemascope uses an entirely different system from the standard Academy, in that artwork is shot and projected through a special lens, known as an anomorphic lens. This lens squeezes the image inward from side to side, resulting in a squeezed image on the film frame then stretches it out again when projected onto a screen. The screen ratio for scope animation is even squatter than wide-screen. The dimensions are 15 inches horizontally and, approximately, 6 to 7 inches vertically. Projected, the...

Comparing Runs And Walks Anticipation

Everything that applies to a walk, applies to a run only more so. The up-and-down movement of the walk is exaggerated in the run to give it more snap. This is because in a run the body is not so much lifted by the straight leg of the passing position (as it is in a walk), but is more driven upward by In a run the arms move more vigorously than in a walk, because they are responsible for driving the legs into action. Olympic sprinters, for example, are not so much trained to move their legs...

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Now the inhetween positions are put in, based on the same principles. The body of drawing 3 is midway between 1 and (5), while the foot slides back to midway between the two. Remember, however, that the toe of the free leg is still in contact with the ground, so it, too, must slide back the same distance that the contact foot is moved. Similarly, drawing 7 is placed between (5) and 9. This time, however, the heel of the free leg must contact the ground ahead of the heel in extreme 9 (the same...

Introduction

Animation is not just a series of funny drawings strung together in movement. At its most creative, it is a truly beautiful art form. Yet the tradition of drawn animation is a relatively short one compared with other visual arts. It has only been in this century that the technology to produce any film let alone an animated film has been available. Indeed, I have often thought that many of the Old Masters, from Leonardo da Vinci to Rembrandt to Hokusai, might well have committed themselves to...

FIELD

When you are using a field larger than a standard 15, however, everything moving in the shot has to be animated on eels that are larger than the largest standard-size eels available from most animation supply stores. These large-size eels thus have to be specially cut and punched, a process that is not only costly, but can prove technically troublesome as well. For example, when large eel areas are repeatedly placed on the relatively small registration peg holes, there can be so...

Lowest Level

The area of the picture that is framed by the camera when a scene is being shot is known as the field size. The field size can be anything the animator chooses, but the standard sizes are 12 and 15 fields. A 12-field measures 12 inches from the extreme left side to the extreme right side of the artwork, with a height of approximately 8.75 inches from top to bottom. This ratio called the standard Academy field ratio is the one used in most films. Television also uses the Academy ratio for its...

Weight In Movement Carrying A Weight Anticipation And Weight Flexibility Overlapping Action

Bouncing Ping Pong Clipart

Eight, flexibility, and overlapping action are critical in making animation convincing. If a run is to be convincing, the effect of weight must be considered. Basically, you must always remember that the larger the character, the more weight he has to carry. And the more weight that must be carried, the slower the character must move, and the harder it is for the character to control that weight. The animator, therefore, has far more to consider when drawing a fat man running than a thin man....

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Paper And Cel Punch

Animation is an exacting art, so it is important to have the appropriate tools for its creation. In addition to the obvious pencils and erasers, there is a whole range of items that, ideally, the animator needs access to when working on a film. The following list has been compiled with a large production in mind and may seem prohibitively expensive to most students and amateur filmmakers. It must therefore be stressed that animation can be produced with a minimum of equipment and facilities....

Bird Wing Positions Timing In Bird Flights Butterflies Fourlegged Animals Tips On Animating Animals

Broken Bird Wings

Nimating birds and animals is an acquired art, requiring a great deal of careful study, although the basic movements can be broken down into simple formulas. In animation there are traditionally four basic positions for a flying bird. The two most obvious are the wings-up and wings-down positions. The breakdown positions, however, are not as straightforward. The traditional positionings of the breakdown drawings are

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Note the concave curve on the downward wing 2 , as the wing tips drag against the air resistance of the downward thrust. When the wing reverses its direction upward again, there is a reversed curve, as the wing tips are dragged downward by the air resistance. These simple principles give a sense of flexibility and snap to the wings. Although this simplified action is appropriate only for cartoon birds, the principle does apply in general terms to realistic flight patterns. Note the wing...

Shift Of Weight To Over Contact

Animated Mouth Positions

As you will remember, for a profile walk to be acceptable, the background has to pan at exactly the same speed as the slide of the contact foot this is best achieved by putting both the pan and cycle on ones. The same principle applies to front-on walks, except that for these walks the background cannot be panned. Instead, the background must be animated, shrinking in perspective as it moves into the distance. This requires much more work, but if it's well done it is very effective. The basic...

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A natural, easy, man's walk can be drawn over sixteen frames. A natural, but fast, woman's walk could work effectively drawn over eight frames, although, again, the demands of the scene would dictate this. To get more subtlety and fluidity into your walks, there are other points to consider. In all the illustrations so far, we have considered the body as more or less an oval with matchstick arms and legs stuck on. In reality, however, the human body is quite flexible, with rotating and bending...

Dimmer Switch For Lowering Light Intensity

Drawn Film Animation

Although it may seem a luxury to the uninitiated, anyone working in full-time animation is likely to purchase an electric pencil sharpener. Such an aid is invaluable when a great deal of drawing has to be done and time is of essence. In other circumstances, of course, a manual pencil sharpener is sufficient. Peg Reinforcements. Often, when animation drawings are shot over and over again, the peg holes on each drawing become worn or damaged. To avoid this, it is useful...

The Graticule Panning Guides Panning Speeds Zip Pans

Charting Sheet For Animation

Earning the technical aspects of animation is extremely important if the action is to be viewed to maximum effect. The dope sheet, or camera instruction sheet, makes it possible for you to organize your thinking in relation to your proposed animation and for the cameraman to accurately chart your wishes. At first glance the dope sheet appears to be a formidable adversary, with a mass of intersecting lines indicating apparent confusion. The dope sheet can, however, be broken down into quite...

Tracebacks

Nbetweening producing the drawings inbetween the key drawings is of fundamental importance to the success or failure of animation technique. An inbetween is a drawing that is usually exactly between two extremes, or key drawings. Consider for example, a ball rolling from A to C. If the animator wants more inbetweens between the key drawings say, 1 to 9 , they would appear as In a studio, inbetweening is done by the assistant. It is essential that the assistant accurately carry out what the...

Correct Breakdown Position

Correct Animation

Returning to the walk itself, you may wonder how to animate the rest of the body so that the whole figure is in movement. The most important thing to remember in all standard walks is that if the left leg is forward, the right arm is forward to counterbalance it see drawing 1 . Similarly, if the right leg is forward, the left arm is forward see drawing 9 . Following all the principles you used to inbetween the legs, you can now produce a passing position for the whole body. First, slowly act it...