Drawing The Body Ebook

Secrets Of Figure Drawing

The author of this excellent program is Ethan. Over the years, Ethan has provided materials that have helped a lot of people. You might have come across his website mydrawingtutorial.com. Ethan started his journey as a professional artist years ago. He started this program back then by sharing his tutorials. As time when by, his tutorial began to grab the attention of many top artists and this motivated him to do more. On his website, you will have a perfect opportunity to learn a lot about drawing figures for free. The product is no scam, it is the real deal. This is an online course that will be taught by his partner Michael. It's divided into 6 different modules. Each module has several videos lessons and covers a different element of the Figure Drawing Success Formula. All together you'll be getting 6 full training modules, filled with 29 video lessons for a total of over 7 hours of materials. And you'll be able to watch these videos anytime from the comfort of your own home. It also comes with three bonuses namely; how to draw hands, how to draw feet, shortcut secret of figure drawing. This product is for any artist that is willing to master the act of figure drawing.

Secrets Of Figure Drawing Summary


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Author: Ethan Smith
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The importance of proportion in portrait drawing

All drawing involves proportion, whether the subject is still life, landscape, figure drawing, or portrait drawing. Proportion is important whether an artwork's style is realistic, abstract, or completely nonobjective (that is, without recognizable forms from the external world). Realistic drawing in particular depends heavily on proportional correctness. Therefore, realistic drawing is especially effective in training the eye to see the thing-as-it-is in its relational proportions. Individuals whose jobs require close estimations of size relationships carpenters, dentists, dressmakers, carpet-layers, and surgeons develop great facility in perceiving proportion. Creative thinkers in all fields benefit from enhanced awareness of part-to-whole relationships from seeing both the trees and the forest.

Drawing the head from all angles

Different Head Angles Cartoon

The rear view isn't the only visually interesting variant you can play up in your cartoons. You can draw the head, or any object, from many different angles. If you were to have someone take a picture of your head each time you moved it around a quarter inch to the right, and your head was 24 inches around, then they would end up taking 336 pictures. So you can see that drawing the head from many different angles can add dimension to your cartoon characters. Unfortunately, I don't have the space to show you that many, so I focus on four basic head directions and angles. Focus on these four angles and their relationship to the center guidelines.

Figure Drawing Without A Model

In this chapter we shall look at a number of drawing exercises devised to help you towards your goal of good imaginative figure drawing from memory. They are aimed at consolidating the information so far presented and building on the familiarity you have gained with the human figure through your frequent use of your sketchbook. Each exercise contributes in a significant way to the development of the drawing skills you will need, and in the process will help you avoid the commoner pitfalls and weaknesses to which drawings from memory are prone. For good figure drawing from memory, the artist's identification with his or her subject is of paramount importance. By this I mean that you must feel that you're dealing with an aspect of yourself as you draw. As you draw a hand, you should be acutely aware of your own hand - its structure and proportions, the knuckles and the fingertips, etc. This state of mind will transmit itself into the drawing and so give it life. Do this as often as you...

The Approach To Figure Drawing

As we begin the book, let us take note of the broad field of opportunity afforded the figure draftsman. Starting with the comic or simple line drawings of the newspaper, it extends all the way up through every kind of poster, display, and magazine advertising, through covers and story illustration to the realms of fine art, portraiture, sculpture, and mural decoration. Figure drawing presents the broadest opportunity from the standpoint of earning of any artistic endeavor Coupled with this fact is the great advantage that all these uses are so interrelated that success in one almost assures success in another. The interrelation of all these uses springs from the fact that all figure drawing is based on the same fundamentals which can be applied no matter what use the work is put to. This brings a further great advantage to the figure man in that he has a constant market if he is capable of good work. The market is constant because his work fits into so many notches in the cycle of...

Dynamic Figure Drawing

Figure Artist brings a whole new dimension to posing a figure that would be nearly impossible in real life. With Figure Artist, the ability to catch an action pose is limitless. In real-life situations, about the best an artist can do is ask the model to perform an action and then try to capture the action with a camera, which is a haphazard approach at best. Figure 8.1 shows a pose taken from a model in Figure Artist that would be impossible for a live model to hold for more than a fraction of a second. This chapter deals with creating dynamic figure poses that would not be possible with live models. My hope is that it will help you to unlock a world of possibilities that goes beyond those available in a life-drawing situation.

Life Drawing

Sketching Human Figures Dancing

WHY life drawing Why, long after artists have left the Art Schools and become successful, do they still attend classes and draw from life Why is it that life drawing is the basis of teaching at most of the principal Art Schools all over the world Drawing from life is the acid test of draughtsmanship. It is to drawing what the great classical ballets are to ballet dancing. By it you compare the abilities of one artist with another and even one generation with another, because life drawing presents exactly the same problems to us as it did to the old masters. attractively, I mean just that. There is a great deal of difference between a correctly drawn figure drawing of a beautiful model and a pornographic drawing but even the latter requires considerable ability. It is this hair-trigger precision that makes life drawing so interesting to artists and makes it such good discipline for students. The constant practice of this most difficult of all types of drawing is of the very greatest...

Body Figure Drawing

Figure Drawing Analytical Sketching

Most art students and too many professional artists will do anything to avoid drawing the human figure in deep space. Walk through the life drawing classes of any art school and you'll discover that nearly every student is terrified of action poses with torsos tilting toward him or away from him, with arms and legs striding forward or plunging back into the distance twisting and bending poses in which the forms of the figure overlap and seem to conceal one another and worst of all, reclining poses, with the figure seen in perspective These are all problems in foreshortening, which really means drawing the figure so that it looks like a solid, three dimensional object which is moving through real space not like a paper doll lying flat on a sheet of paper. Drawing the figure in deep space foreshortening is not a mere technical trick, not a mere problem to be solved it's the essence of figure drawing as perfected by Leonardo, Michelangelo, Tintoretto, Rubens, and the other great masters...

Portrait Drawing

Wendon Blake Portrait Drawing

Portrait drawing Technique, t. Lawn, John. II. Blake. Wendon, Drawing book. Title, IV. Series Blake, Wendon. Artist's paintfng library. NC773 B57 1981 743'.42 81-11533 ISBN 0-8230-4094-1 AACR2 Introduction 4 Getting Started 5 Equipment 6 Form and Proportion 8 Drawing the Eye Front View 10 Drawing the Eye Three-quarter View 11 Drawing the Eye Side View J2 Drawing the Eye Tilted View 13 Drawing the Mouth Front View 14 Drawing the Mouth Three-quarter View 16 Drawing the Mouth Side View IS Drawing the Mouth Tilted View 19 Drawing the Nose Front View 20 Drawing the Nose Three-quarter View 21 Drawing the Nose Side View 22 Drawing the Nose Tilted View 23 Drawing the Ear Side View 24 Drawing the Ear Front View 25 Drawing the Head Front View 26 Drawing the Head Three-quarter View 30 Pencil Drawing 34 Demonstration 1. Blond Woman 36 Demonstration 2. Brown-Haired Man 40 Demonstration 3+ Black Man 44 Demonstration 4, Dark-Haired Woman 48 Chalk Drawing 52 Portrait...

Sful Figure Drawing

Perfect Proportions

The essence of successful male figure drawing is that it be kept masculine plenty of bone and muscle. The face should be lean, the cheeks slightly hollowed, the eyebrows fairly thick (never in a thin line), the mouth full, the chin prominent and well defined. The figure is, of course, wide shouldered and at least six feet (eight or more heads) tall. Unfortunately, it is not easy to find these lean-faced, hard-muscled male models. They are usually at harder work.

Using Figure Artist

Virtual Figure For Artists

One of the biggest advantages of using Figure Artist to set up your characters for figure drawing is the fact that the models are detailed. They have all of their fingers and toes, and they are all proportionally correct. In addition, they are accurate for studies of the head or even of individual features, such as the ear or nose. The models might not have every scrap of detail that an actual person does, but they are As the artist, you have complete control over how you use Figure Artist. You can just use it to help you sketch figures, and then later hire a live model, or you can use it as your model for your pictures. When it comes to learning how to draw the hands, feet, and head, Figure Artist is a great resource Hopefully this book has given you a good foundation from which you can build your drawings. You should now be ready to start posing and drawing your own figures from Figure Artist. In the next few chapters, you will be learning how to pose, light, and compose your...

Fart Jlvo VUomen JJeaJ

In american advertising and magazine illustration the ability to draw women's heads effectively is the greatest boon to the pocketbook. While commercial art has many departments, no other is quite so lucrative. This skill opens the door of advertising agencies, editorial offices, and calendar producers as nothing else can. Portrait drawings are much easier to sell than finished paintings, since the price is much lower. Drawings. nicely framed, can be hung anywhere in the house, while painted portraits are more or less restricted to the space over the living-room mantelpiece. A man often prefers a nicely done drawing of himself or his wife or children to an elaborate painting. Fortunately, the artist can make such drawings inexpensively, in much less time than a painting takes, and he can well afford to keep his price within the normal family budget. There are possibilities in portrait drawing which should not l e overlooked. It is pleasant work. It can be part-time work, and it is...

Figure Notation in Deep Space

But more important, he can choose to introduce radical innovations of form, To do this, at least experimentally, the artist must approach his drawing with a new order of form. He must give up certain uncritical conventions and preconceived notions of figure drawing. For instance, he must put aside starting the figure by sketching in the head. He must give this up, firmly. According to the method which I propose, the torso, above any other form, is of primary importance. With this premise, let us initiate the new order of form and assert the opening rule. . .

Ellen Profiling a Harsh Melancholia

Portrait drawing embraces much, much more than the simple rendering of form and light. Compare the finished drawing to the photograph of Ellen. You'll notice a few differences. I drew the eyes smaller than they really are and closed them a bit melancholia has an unslept, withdrawn quality. The nose is rendered ruddier and redder. The cheeks given a harsh edged quality. There is a marked physiology to sadness, especially depression. Well, isn't that interesting, the width of Ellen's head from the far zygomatic to the back of the hair is exactly equal from the intersection of sternohyoideus muscle and biventer mandibulae muscle to the top of the frontalis muscle, or frontal bone. (Let me reiterate - you really should know your anatomy. The portrait is a demanding subject that requires precision, knowing all of the lumps and bumps, their names and functions greatly aids in meeting the demands of accurate portrait drawing.)

A closer look at Ellen

Building tone and form is the most meditative and satisfying part of portrait drawing. As with all things, a solid foundation is mandatory. An exquisite rendering of details will not hide a poor architectural structure, instead all of the errors and miscues of proportion will be made more apparent.

Complete Omide

Human Figure Bending

Over 1000 Anatomical Drawings Bridgman's vivid and articulate personality brought lively interest to the study of anatomy. His beautiful drawings of musculature and bone structure have provided a truly new literature on the subject. These were anatomical drawings made not for the medical student or the doctor but specifically for the artist. How the body moves, bends, how its parts coordinate, how the hands clutch, pull, or push, are among the countless bodily movements he illustrated and analyzed. In this book is the heart of Bridgman's system of constructive anatomy, his life drawing and his work on the structure of head and features. The entire work of his long lifetime in art instruction and practice is included here. Drawing the Head -------74

Construction Draw

Drawing Hands Tone

To see many good examples of head drawings, because so few are published. In the past decade there have been few men in the field good enough to have their drawings published regularly, aside from the fact that many artists ability to draw the head is concealed by their use of mediums. I would like to call attention to the work of William Ol erhardt, who stands almost alone in drawing the head. I hope the reader may at some time come across a few of the many drawings of his that have appeared in publications. The schools in England seem to have produced many more fine examples of head-drawing than those in America have. I think this is bccausc the young American artist tends to turn to photographs for material before he has any real knowledge of the head. The drawings in this book are offered humbly, since there are many draftsmen whose skill exceeds mine, but because of the lack of helpful books on the subject, 1 submit whatever I have to offer hopefully.

Eight Card Redrawing Test CRT

Caligor has provided examples and an outline of his system for scoring the 8CRT in his book A New Approach to Figure Drawing (1957). For the purposes of this discussion, I prefer to utilize an adapted version. Therefore, rather than assessing the client's completed test based on Caligor's 36 structural dimensions, I have adapted his table to offer a quick overview of the eight drawing pages. This approach (Appendix E) allows me to observe and note simultaneously any deviations, repetitions, or patterns throughout all eight drawings while completing my assessment on quantitative and qualitative levels.

The Reclining Figure

One of the most challenging phases of figure drawing is that of the reclining pose. It offers the best opportunity of all for design, interesting pose, pattern, and foreshortening. We forget the body as an upright figure for the moment and think of it as a means of flexible pattern for space-filling. The head may be placed anywhere within the space at your disposal. The torso may be regarded from any viewpoint. In the drawing of the reclining figure, as in the standing and sitting poses, avoid straight, uninteresting poses the legs straight, the arms straight, the head straight. I call these coffin poses, for nothing appears quite so dead. Unlimited variety is possible with the reclining or half-reclining poses. We brought the figure out of the proportion box early in this lx)ok. Never fit a box around anything that is an interpretation of life. Reclining poses are often neglected in art schools. The reason is usually the crowded room in which one student obstructs the view of...

Form Structures Of The Head

The form structures are the hard, bony, skeletal parts of the head or body. Or they are the tensile, firm, cartilaginous parts. These are the rigid framework or support structures of the body, upon which all the soft, limber, or supple tissues depend. Having established the basic form of the two great masses, we will look more closely at the form structures which give the brain case and the facial region their special qualities. We shall see how the upper mass becomes a skull and how the lower mass becomes a face with features. We shall not describe these structures as mere anatomical parts, but as forms which are used in drawing the head.

House TreePerson HTP Examples

Htp Test Abusive Children

English and required specialized interpreters, as his village dialect was obscure. I chose the HTP projective test for its previously noted ability to measure independently quantitative details and for its objective scoring system. However, I must state that Buck's study (not unlike Lowenfeld's) focuses on research developed by Western participants and standards. As Machover (1949) has observed, however, common social meanings are inherent in artwork, especially in human figure drawing, and facial characteristics transcend variations in culture or in drawing skill. Thus, the human figure should contain (with exception made only for consequences of figure positioning or an absence accounted for verbally) a head a trunk two legs, arms, and eyes a nose a mouth and two ears (Buck, 1966). Additionally, Figure 3.6 contains two drawings completed within two months of one another. The HTP on the left was completed without an interpreter present and therefore was not accompanied by a...

The Nature Of The Facial Muscles

Nearly a century earlier, another pioneer anatomist had patiently explored and diagrammed the facial muscles in beautiful, accurate drawings. But the anatomical drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, like so much of his scientific and artistic work, were by the time of Ves-alius scattered in private collections and unknown to the world at large. The anatomical text Leonardo intended to publish had never been realized. of all his meticulous effort was not just anatomical drawings. The men in his battle scenes, just like the women in his portraits, have faces more real, and more alive, than any that had appeared in painting before. Science in the service of art led to a mastery of expression.

The Line of Action or Strength

The rhythm of a line and its modulation is an important value in figure drawing. An interest in the forms of a nude should be expressed by the charm of the drawings line strokes. This expression demands some exaggeration, simplification, or even changes, all of which are completely legitimate if they intensify the visual quality of the work. The characteristics of a line used to define a contour can transmit the nature of the form, its materiality, surface texture, and visual charge.

The Pencil As A Measuring Device

Pencil Technique Draw Body Proportion

We can analyse our observations in a number of ways to enable us to make a visual record of what we see. One of these ways involves using the pencil both as mark maker and measuring device. What you are doing in effect is building a grid on which to map out your drawing. This approach is appropriate for all types of observational drawing and for different subjects ranging from landscape and still life to figure drawing. I have chosen a figure for our example because the pencil is still the most popular measure for this type of drawing go to the life rooms of any art college and you will find it widely used. The procedure is as follows

A warmup exercise A copy of the Courbet selfportrait

Berthe Morisot Self Portrait 1885

Imagine that you are honored by a visit from the nineteenth-century French artist, Gustave Courbet (pronounced goos-tav koor-bay), and that he has agreed to sit for a portrait drawing, wearing his jaunty hat and smoking his pipe. The artist is in a rather serious mood, quiet and thoughtful. See Figure. 10-3, page 197.

Foreshortening and Perspective

Sir Jacob Epstein Drawings

WE discussed some methods when considering Technique, but there are some pitfalls which can beset the beginner even in a subject like Figure Drawing, in which technique is very simple. charcoal, chalk and, of course, principally pencil. Though the drawing on the opposite page by Rembrandt is in pen and wash (a favourite medium) he also made figure drawings in every medium except lead pencil, which hadn't been invented in his day (though something called Silverpoint was used, which has a similar effect). Opposite A drawing of Venus and Cupid, by Francois Boucher, from the collection of J. N. Brown, Esq., Providence, Rhode Island. Due to considerable practice in life drawing, Boucher, like Rubens, was so familiar with the human figure that he could draw it in all kinds of attitudes without needing a model. It is perhaps fortunate for him that he died before the French Revolution, as other artists of his type, who survived him, fell upon evil times, their work being considered...

The mystery of the choppedoff skull

Chopped Off Skull Error

In this introduction to profile-portrait drawing, I'll concentrate on two critical relationships that are persistently difficult for beginning drawing students to correctly perceive the location of eye level in relation to the length of the whole head and the location of the ear in the profile view. I believe these are two examples of perceptual errors caused by the brain's propensity to change visual information to better fit its concepts. I stumbled on this problem one day while teaching a group of beginning drawing students at the university. They were working on portrait drawings and one after another had chopped off the skull of the model. I went through my Can't you see that the eye level line is halfway between the bottom of the chin and the top edge of the hair queries. The students said, No. We can't see that. I asked them to measure the model's head, then their own heads, and then each others' heads. Was the measure one to one I asked. Yes, they said. Well, I said, now you...

Define Realistic Drawing

Draw Shapes Below Horizon Line

Draw basic forms based on visual reality rather than four specific shapes. For example, draw a rectangle rather than a cube, to represent the trailer head in the figure drawing (fig 2-6). Modify basic forms to fit the subject. Let your mind's eye accept the image for its actual shape and draw exactly what you see. This helps to avoid symbols.

Constructive Sketches

Drawing Faces Eyes Nose Mouth

When you first start drawing the head, which is a very complex shape, you are likely to encounter great difficulties and won't know where to start from. A traditional and scholastic, but very useful, approach is the one mentioned on these pages and which is developed further in chapter 12 (see page 32). Bear in mind that in portraiture it is essential, first of all, to capture the overall individual characteristics of the model's head and then study the characteristics of the details and how they relate to one another.

Using a Manikin for the Study of Anatomy

Anatomy Drawing

Work in the life class should be done with the anatomy book open. It is difficult to start drawing the figure from life without any previous preparation. Upon entering a life class the student should have a fairly accurate idea of the proportions of the figure in heads, and in sixths, as illustrated on page 107. I have tried to cover most of the problems of figure drawing in a previous volume, Figure Drawing for All It's Worth. proximation at best, and there is no actual play of muscle to go by. This objection is sound, provided the person studying drawing has life classes available, the time for them, and the funds to pay for them. I gladly agree that any young person who intends to make a living at art should by all means attend life classes, However, I believe that the manikin has an important use for the study of action, since a live model cannot hold an action pose for any length of time. Working from the manikin tends to loosen up the student's figure drawing. When an artist...

Drawa Person DAP Examples

Draw Person Dap

Before returning to Figure 3.2, I would like to take a few moments to introduce the formal aspects of the human figure drawing. When you are assessing a projective test, these signs or details take on great significance, for details are believed to represent the subject's awareness of an interest in the elemental aspects of everyday life (Buck, 1948, p. 49). In view of that, when you draw information regarding a client's personality and his or her reaction and behavior in the environment, you must combine any structural assessment with a qualitative interpretation of the signs. A study by Goldstein and Rawn (1957) focused on seven symbolic details and two structural aspects to assess whether aggression could be deduced from drawing style using the DAP. The seven signs comprised the following slash-

Portraiture Human Head Proportion

Outline Human Head

Expression, by enlarging and diminishing as well as varying the form of the features, has supplied, in her most perfect productions, a standard of proportion useful to the draughtsman, not only as assisting in the delineation of correct and beautiful forms, but also in such as are exceptions. A standard of form once impressed on the mind, we soon learn to measure all deviations by it, as we learn to measure the variations of curved or eccentric by straight lines (20, 21). Thus may the eye be educated not only to fix upon the most prominent and characteristic peculiarities of a head, at once, but the impression will be so vividly preserved upon the memory that it may be recalled and delineated at any moment, with a degree of facility as surprising to the uninitiated as serviceable to the possessor. Nor is this principle of design alone applicable to drawing the head. It extends, as a general and practical method, to the delineation and preservation in the memory of all other objects,...

Muscular Body Motion Sketches

Whole Body Movement Drawings

Generally you will want - or be asked to produce - only one drawing of any complete action, and so you have to choose which part of the action to draw. Your single drawing must represent the whole of the action from start to finish. In a good action figure drawing, it should be evident what has just happened and what is just about to happen. If the point in the action which you choose to depict epitomizes the entire manoeuvre your drawing will be perceived and understood as a moving figure.

Four point perspective

Body Perspective Drawing

I have chosen these next four figure drawings for you to see the reaction of four-point perspective. Make yourself aware of where the artist's eye level was. The way to do this is to see where the body seems to go flat for a moment, a place that you cannot see above or beneath, where you are looking head on at the model. See where the closest edge of the box of space that the model occupies is in reference to you. In most standing poses, my eye level hits right around the mid-thigh of a model.

Dover Books On Art Instruction

Only.) (28401-8) Acrylic Painting A Complete Guide, Wendon Blake. (29589-3) Acrylic Watercolor Painting, Wendon Blake. (29912-0) Figure Drawing Step by Step, Wendon Blake. (40200-2) Landscape Drawing Step by Step, Wendon Blake. (40201-0) Oil Portraits Step by Step, Wendon Blake. (40279-7) Watercolor Landscapes Step by Step, Wendon Blake. (40280-0) Texture and Detail in Watercolor, Richard Bolton. (Available in U.S. and Canada only.) (29509-5) Bridgman's Life Drawing, George B. Bridgman. (22710-3) Constructive Anatomy, George B. Bridgman. (21104-5) Drawing the Draped Figure, George B. Bridgman. (41802-2)) Animal Sketching, Alexander Calder. (20129-5) Chinese Painting Techniques, Alison Stilwell Cameron. (40708-X) Carlson's Guide to Landscape Painting, John F. Carlson. (22927-0) Pattern Design, Archibald H. Christie. (22221-7) The Artistic Anatomy of Trees, Rex Vicat Cole. (21475-3) Perspective for Artists, Rex Vicat Cole. (22487-2) Art Students' Anatomy, Edmond J. Farris. (20744-7)...

Line In Another Contour

The feeling of rhythm is of tremendous importance in figure drawing. Unfortunately, it is one of the easiest things to miss. In music we feel tempo and rhythm. In drawing it is much the same. Considered technically, rhythm is a flow of continuous line resulting in a sense of unity and grace.

Drawing llie Figure in Costume

Pencil Drawings The Female Figure

Most of the preparation a commercial artist goes through is to learn to draw figures in costume with all the elements right. When a man takes up art as a hobby he is free to do what interests him most. Rut if it is his vocation, the costumed figure is his chicf stock in trade, the thing he depends upon most.

Body Proportions Skeleton

Simplified Skeleton Proportion

In this chapter I will cover how to construct the figure using some simplified methods to make the process of drawing a little easier. I will start by showing you how to build a simple structure as the basis for defining dimension and proportion. This structure will become the foundation of your figure drawings. You will then be able to use it to develop a finished figure drawing. At the beginning of every figure drawing, the artist is faced with a daunting task in defining a subject that is painfully complex yet supremely organized. Without initially simplifying the figure, the artist may become overwhelmed. It is very important in the initial stages of a figure drawing to be able to use some kind of simple framework to define the dimensions and proportions of the figure on the paper. The artist needs a simple and accurate system for starting the figure on paper without getting bogged down in too much detail. One way of doing this that works well for me is to go back to the...

How To Shade Anime Hair

Stretches With Pencil Shading

One problem here is the unity of the design as well as the correctness of the actual figure drawing, since the arms stretch away to a secondary object. The artist tried to counter the oblique line of the arms with downward, linear pencil strokes he didn't want the strokes to be spaced too evenly, which would give them a machine-made effect, as in the shirt. He would have preferred developing the same loose feeling all over the face as in the arm, but then he wouldn't have been able to explicitly designate all the character planes.

Drawing From Life

Take your sketchbook with you wherever you go. This is so important that I make no apology for repeating it. Draw people as they wait on a railway platform or sit on a park bench, or members of your family at home as they watch television. In bars, in restaurants and caf s, and in the street you can see all shapes and sizes of people. Note them down in your sketchbook and you'll never regret it. Sketching, it should be stressed, is not only a pleasurable occupation in its own right there is no better way to increase your knowledge and ability. If you make it a habit your life will be enriched by your clearer perception of your fellow human beings, and you'll develop a sureness of touch that will enliven your work and increase your ability to draw just what you want.

Drawing the Human Figure

How Draw Military Guns

Human Figure Drawings 254 To help you understand how to approach figure drawing, this section contains copies of old master drawings. These are drawings by artists of the past who were recognized in their day, and are still recognized today, as great artists. The examples succinctly show the main points to keep in mind when drawing the human form.

How To Draw Destroyed Buildings In Manga

Safari Glass Shower Door Pricing

Consider the lines that will give shape to the three-dimensional figure. The most difficult part about drawing small props is probably the comparison and contrast with human figures. Apply the same design methods that you have been using up until now. One thing to be careful of is the size of the props. While it does depend on the build of the character, try to draw small props a bit on the large side. You may notice that you have drawn the prop on the small side making it look cheap and flimsy ruining the drawing you have worked so hard to create. This is a common mistake so be careful.

The function and form of fabric

Life Drawing With Clothes

Bridgeman describes different types of folds in the back of his book. They also are good to know. I believe that in the end, your observation and understanding of what the body is doing will help you achieve more believable clothed figure drawings. I want you to realize that clothing is not only a topic you should understand technically. Clothing can tell a story. When drawing people, ask yourself some of these questions What kinds of clothes does this person wear What color are the clothes and what kinds of materials are they made of Are the clothes snug or of a more relaxed fit All of this gives you inside information about a person. It starts to give you a personal story. Notice yourself and figure out why you wear the clothes you do and how they represent you.

Xl The Head Hands And Feet

The head, perhaps, has more to do with selling a drawing than anything else. Though the figure drawing you submit may be a splendid one, your client will not look beyond a homely or badly drawn face. I have often worried and labored over this fact in my own experience. Once something happened that has helped me ever since. I discovered construction. 1 discovered that a beautiful face is not necessarily a type. It is not hair, color, eyes, nose, or mouth. Any set of features in a skull that is normal can be made into a face that is interesting and arresting, if not actually beautiful. When the face on your draw- In this chapter are studies of the skull and its bony structure, as well as the muscular construction and the general planes of the male head. The individual features are worked out in detail. The heads are of varying ages. Since no two faccs are alike, for you the best plan is to draw people rather than stock heads. Perhaps an artist of another era could repeat his types...

Illustrating Curved Links Suggesting Fullness And Foreshortening

Although one has selected a strong half light and half shade effect to i1ll0u0strate the general principles of light and shade, it is not advisable in making line drawings to select such a position. A point of view with a fairly wide light at your back is the best. In this position little shadow will be seen, most of the forms being expressed by the play of light and half tone. The contours, as they are turned away from the light, will naturally be darker, and against a light background your subject has an appearance with dark edges that is easily expressed by a line drawing. Strong light and shade effects should be left for mass drawing. You seldom see any shadows in Holbein's drawings he seems to have put his sitters near a wide window, close against which he worked. Select also a background as near the tone of the highest light on the object to be drawn as possible. This will show up clearly the contour. In the case of a portrait drawing, a newspaper hung behind the head answers...

The Standing Figure

Much of the essential equipment for professional figure drawing is described in the preceding chapters. You have now learned a means of expression, but your use of that knowledge is just beginning. From this point onward you must learn to express yourself individually, showing your particular taste in the selection of models, choice of pose, dramatic sense and interpretation, characterization, and technical rendering.

Taking the first steps in color drawing

I will use the Degas drawing on pink paper (Figure 11-6) as the basis for instructions, but please choose any subject that appeals to you a group of objects for a still-life drawing, a person who will pose for a figure drawing or a portrait, another reproduction of a master drawing, a photograph that appeals to you, or a self-portrait (the artist always has one available model ).

Limitations of a Live Model

Live Model Poses

Gravity affects everything in life, including a model, causing fatigue. Some poses are easier to hold than others for long periods of time. Out of respect and compassion for the live model, most figure-drawing situations tend to be poses that the model can hold without a great deal of difficulty. Dynamic poses are often short, giving the artist little time to fully develop the figure. Figure Artist does not solve every limitation of live models, but it does go a long way toward solving many problems. A model in Figure Artist can hold a pose indefinitely, no matter how difficult the pose. Holding a pose indefinitely is a great advantage because the artist can study the figure in detail. What's more, when a model from Figure Artist is posed, it doesn't move at all. If you come back a You can see from these examples that dynamics of figure movement that go beyond the sedate, static poses of the life-drawing class are now available to the artist through Figure Artist.

Joshua Nava Drawing Foot

Foot Orthographic

Feet are similarly avoided in figure drawings. But because they are the base for the body at rest or in action, you need to pay closer attention to them. The base of all figure drawings the feet. Practice copying these foot positions. Visit the sculpture gallery of your local museum with your sketchbook in hand and start sketching the feet of the statues. Try sketching the feet of one statue from different eye levels or views to see how the foot changes as you change your orientation.

Anatomybased skeletal models

Most human figure models use a simplified articulated skeleton consisting of relatively few jointed segments. Magnenat-Thalmann and Thalmann 11 challenged researchers to develop more accurate articulated models for the skeletal support of human figures. They observe that complex motion control algorithms which have been developed for primitive articulated models better suit robotlike characters than they do human figures. To address this issue, researchers have revisited the skeletal layer of human figure models to solve some specific problems. In Jack 1 , the shoulder is modeled accurately as a clavicle and shoulder pair. The spatial relationship between the clavicle and shoulder is adjusted based on the position and orientation of the upper arm. In another treatment of the shoulder-arm complex, the Thalmanns 11 use a moving joint based on lengthening the clavicle which produces good results. Monheit and Badler 14 developed a kinematic model of the human spine that improves on the...

Univuaiii utymzea oy lYiicroSGit Gy

Photographs from casts, medals, bas-reliefs, afford excellent models for copying in monochrome painting. Copies of photographs on oval plaques are done with red brown, heightened with bitumen. Raphael's female figures on plaques for sconces, are copied in light grey, retouched with brown grey, on a ground of very light carmine No. 1.

Moving the Point of View

Nude Male Models Group

A view in Figure Artist is associated with a camera. By moving the camera, you are moving your point of view. Take a look at Figure 8.10. The only thing that has changed is your point of view. Figure Artist has no restrictions as to the angles from which you can view your poses. You can even become creative and view the action from a sky shot, as shown in Figure 8.12, or you can look at the action from below, as shown in Figure 8.13.

Posing Multiple Figures


You can set up scenes with live models to have multiple figures, but two models usually cost twice as much as one model. With Figure Artist you can add as many figures as you like, and they don't cost any more than the purchase price of the software. A great advantage of Figure Artist is that the models are to scale, which helps to keep the figures in your scenes in scale with each other. The perspective in Figure Artist is automatic.

Realism as a means to an end

A number of the exercises and instructional sequences in this book are designed to enable you to draw recognizable portraits. Let me explain why I think portrait drawing is useful as a subject for beginners in art. Broadly speaking, except for the degree of complexity, all drawing is the same. One drawing task is no harder than any other. The same skills and ways of seeing are involved in drawing still-life setups, landscapes, the figure, random objects, even imaginary subjects, and portrait drawing. It's all the same thing You see what's out there (imaginary subjects are seen in the mind's eye) and you draw what you see. Why, then, have I selected portrait drawing for some of the exercises For three reasons. First, beginning students of drawing often think that drawing human faces is the hardest of all kinds of drawing. Thus, when students see that they can draw portraits, they feel confident and their confidence enhances progress. A second, more important, reason is that the right...

Certain Forewords Of Importance

MANY treatises on artistic anatomy exist there exists, it may be, a less number of volumes on figure-drawing. Several of these treatises, of these volumes, I have read, still more have I glanced through years ago I consulted with assiduity Marshall's Anatomy for Artists. Now, as a draughtsman of the nude myself, as a sculptor, as a painter, I have faults to find with one and all of the books on drawing that it has been my lot to come across. Some of them are practically valueless others are fairly good some, the artistic anatomies, I mean, fulfil rather too well their allotted task, but unfortunately the task that they have allotted themselves is far from coinciding with the extent of the subject of figure-drawing and figure-drawing implicitly contains all other forms of drawing. I forget now which painter of seascapes was once asked what was the best way of learning to paint the sea. The churlish reply came ' Go and draw the Antique ' This answer I would, myself, modify I would...

Drawing Eye Misconceptions

Eye Drawing Common Misconceptions

Figure Artist uses virtual models that are anatomically correct, including genitalia however, it also includes a feature to remove genitals from the models. The default is off, showing no genitalia. The images in this book use the default setting. Learning to Be a Figure Artist Good figure drawing is a conscious effort that takes time, patience, and knowledge. I have often told my students that art is more closely related to an athletic event than it is to an academic endeavor. I believe that art instructors would be better served to think of themselves as coaches than as teachers. Like athletics, art takes very refined physical facility, adeptness, and inspiration. Practicing drawing can create within an artist drawing skill. In other words, the artist can learn to make the pencil behave and do what the artist wishes. An artist can learn to draw boldly and strongly or delicately and subtly. If you have ever watched a good caricature artist at work, you know what I mean. The drawing...

Composing a Theme and Main Idea

Before you jump into drawing characters and writing story lines, you need to determine your strip's main idea and theme. The main idea for your strip comes from the characters and the plot of the story. In contrast, the theme reflects the actions or events that are repeated and ongoing.

Head Tilts and Turns

Drawing Female From Behind

Ouch Don't you hate that word Well back up a step. Think of anatomy as your friend, except that it doesn't ask to borrow money. One of the main complaints comic book editors have about artists is that they've learned to draw by looking at comics, rather than through an understanding of anatomy and life drawing. Flashy style won't mask a lack of understanding. And, with today's emphasis on extreme anatomy, you've got to know more, or you'll fall behind.

A warmup exercise

Drawing Side Down

To illuminate for yourself the connection of edges, spaces, and relationships in portrait drawing, I suggest that you copy (make a drawing of) John Singer Sargent's beautiful profile portrait of Mme. Pierre Gautreau, which Sargent drew in 1883 (Figure 9-23). You may wish turn it upside down. 3. Lay your clear plastic Picture Plane directly on top of the Sargent and note where the crosshairs fall on the portrait drawing. You will immediately see how this will help you in

The Shape

Draw Model Human Body

Because the pelvis is connected to the head by the backbone, it is constitutes the body's axis. Several muscles of the torso, the thighs, and the legs meet at the pelvis, which serves as the main support point for this area of the body. One of the most important parts of the pelvis, and the one which most noticeably affects the outer appearance of the figure, is the iliac crest, which lines up with the hipbone. Don't forget to draw this bone, particularly in female figures and slimmer models. Because a woman's pelvis is wider than a man's, her hipbone is much more visible, marking a soft curvature from the pubic area to the top of the buttocks. Understanding the tilt of the hipbone is essential to correctly drawing the body in any pose.


Shadows The Face Drawing

In this chapter, up to page 37, I illustrate the stages one has to go through to draw a portrait. The method indicated is rather scholastic but useful to those new to portrait drawing. Once familiar with the elements which are essential to characterise a face, it will be easier and more spontaneous to move gradually from the first sketch to a more complex drawing and find your own, more immediate and personal, way forward. My advice is to do some of these exercises using live models and photographs, and to try to understand how each stage helps you tackle and solve a specific problem and how you get to draw a head correctly, at least from a formal point of view. Use sheets of white paper at least 30 x 40cm (12x16in) in size and pencils of various grades, as I have indicated.

Head Face

Drawing the head and face is an intimidating prospect, because facial expressions change so quickly that capturing them precisely is a goal that only the most capable artist can attain. Hence, this section will devote no time to studying the action of facial features but will concentrate instead on the relationship of the head, considered as a volume, to the rest of the body. Understanding the law of proportion for the head in profile can be very useful when drawing portraits such as this one. It is then a matter of simply adapting the features and proportions of the person you are drawing to the initial measurements of the law of proportion. The base of the nose is located on a line dividing the face down the middle, and the mouth is somewhat above the chin line. To these lines, you can then add a line for the eyebrows, which will then give you an adequate outline for drawing the head and facial features. The established proportions for the head in frontal view can also be used for...


Sketches Female Ballet Figure

Greek and Roman figure drawings that exist to-day are mostly on walls or vases and, in some cases, on floors in mosaic patterns. Here we find much more naturalistic movement but not any figure drawing comparable to the sculpture of the period. It was mostly the pot-boiling kind of drawing, typical of lesser commercial art to-day. One thing to notice about the figure drawing we have discovered so far is that nearly all of it is based on line, with very little modelling, a very conventional, unsympathetic sort of line at that. There may of course be some drawings, as yet undiscovered, that will rank with the Venus de Milo and the Parthenon freize as masterpieces. They must have existed at one time Phidias surely made studies for his sculpture and probably artists drew their wives and mistresses. . . . We're now approaching comparatively civilized times, but still no figure drawing as far as we know. In Europe the darkness of the Middle Ages and the iron rule of the Church spread a...



Lines drawn down the forms give an appearance of great strength andlMighness, a tense look. And this quality is very useful in suggesting such things as joints and sinews, rocks, hard ground, or gnarled tree-trunks, &c. In figure drawing it is an interesting quality to use sparingly, with the shading done on the across-the-form principle and to suggest a difference of texture or a straining of the form. Lines of shading drawn in every direction, crossing each other and resolving themselves into tone effects, suggest atmosphere and the absence of surface form. This is more often used in the backgrounds of pen and ink work and is seldom necessary in pencil or chalk drawing, as they are more concerned with form than atmosphere. Pen and ink is more often used for elaborate pictorial effects in illustration work, owing to the ease with which it can be reproduced and printed and it is here that one more often finds this muddled quality of line spots being used to fill up interstices and...

Chibi Style

Also called super-deformed, the chibi typically stands two to three heads tall. When drawing the head, the jaw line and chin should not drop down too far. This way you will have a more circular head rather than an egg-shaped one. Remember to keep the features simple. The eyes are quite large, but the nose is practically nonexistent. As for the body, the chest and hip areas seem fused together, with the torso tapering in toward the bottom. Arms and legs, too, get drawn with a taper, while the hands and feet become very simplified shapes.

Draw with IMPACT

Basic Drawing Instruction Picture

Over 50 quick lessons with step by step instructions for drawing people, creatures, places and backgrounds. Lea Hernandez is one of manga's most popular artists and this book is filled with hundreds of her illustrations that will inspire you to draw your own comics. Perfect for beginning and advanced artists.

Of The Figure

How Draw Human Body Step Step

In figure drawing the mastery of line is very important because, besides defining the concrete contours of volumes and creating a sense of direction or vital impulse in the drawing, it creates tensions and reactions the particular cadences of the figure. A knowledge of these dynamic tensions gives the figure a sense of contained motion and a rhythmic sensation that can be of great compositional and interpretive interest.Thus, figures appear to be described by a strange equilibrium dominated by action, in a constant entwined motion and violent inflections that are propelled by a force that, although sometimes overwhelming, gives meaning to the pose and unites all of the linear elements of the figure.

The Action Line

Action Line

You don't necessarily have to draw the action line first, but you do need to see it in the pose of your figure. A good way to work with the virtual models in Figure Artist is to create the pose and then draw an action line over the model, like the lines drawn over the model in Figure 8.6. You should be able to see readily whether your model has a strong action line. If it does not, you can then work on the pose some more to get a better line. Figure Artist comes with a number of poses for both the male and female models. These poses range from relaxed, mundane actions to dynamic comic book-style poses. To help you learn how to increase the drama in your own poses, I suggest that you load a few of the poses and adjust them. See whether you can make the poses more dynamic. Work on the action lines and see whether you can create some expressive dynamic poses for your drawing from the poses that come with the software.


Anime Movement Drawings

Drawing the body's energy is the least talked about subject in figure drawing classes today, and is yet the most important. The majority of books and instructors teach about copying what you see and not understanding it. I was extremely fortunate to have Jim McMullan as an instructor and close friend at the School of Visual Arts. He taught me to be aware of life in the figure.


The human form is graceful by its natural design, so posing a figure to take the best advantage of displaying an aspect of the human form can be very beautiful. This is one reason why I suspect artists have been fascinated by the human form for centuries. It is also why many artists spend a great deal of time in figure drawing classes and studying the nude figure.

The Figure in Light

Fundamentals Pencil Drawing

It is foolish to try to fake the lighting on a seriously drawn figure, Lighting is much too complicated and subtle to guess at. Either have a figure to draw from or get some good photographic material. It may bo helpful to work from copy first, and from life later. The ideal thing is to enter a class in life drawing. Most classes work in charcoal, which is even more flexible than pencil as a material, for it can be easily erased. If you are studying the figure at home, get some charcoal, charcoal paper, plastic or kneaded rubber, You will also need a drawing board. Remember to keep darks and blacks out of the lighted areas, exccpt where you find accents of shadow within or alongside of these areas. Keep a long point on your pencil or charcoal so that you can use the tip for line and the sides for tones. Get some good books on figure drawing, and some on anatomy. If you practice a good deal on still-life drawing, too, you will draw the figure much better. Light is light no matter what...

Brief History

Bistre Medium Art

An artist's training was based around figure drawing, which ultimately meant a pilgrimage to Italy. Portrait drawing Portrait drawings were still fashionable and studies drawn by the French Neo-Classicist Ingres were so real and lifelike that there was never any doubt as to their likeness to the sitter. Ingres' contemporary and great rival was Delacroix, who by contrast was a Romantic free spirit. He not only made studies in the traditional manner for grand historical pictures but also drew everything that caught his eye. In an age that preceded the advent of photography, drawing was the only way that Delacroix could record the trip he made to Morocco in 1832. Contemporary reports stated that he drew night and day, desperate not to forget the rich aspects of Arabian life.

Image Based Lighting

Image Based Lighting

Figure Artist has a special lighting option for image-based lighting. Image-based lighting is a way of setting up the lighting of a character based on an image of natural lighting. The lighting simulates the lighting effects found in real environments through an image of that environment. When the image is processed through Figure Artist, the program creates lights that simulate the environment.

Add a Color to

Jacob Collins Figure Art

The next few pages contain some figure drawings by various artists, which show some different approaches to drawing the human figure. Always look at as many drawings by different artists as you can. This will help you to solve technical drawing problems, and identify and define your own aesthetic. This is a partial image of a toned figure drawing by Jacob Collins. It shows a mastery of technical skill. The figure is evenly lit. The only shadows occur on those planes of the body that do not receive any light, such as under the chin and jaw, the bottom of the nose, the eyes as they lie underneath the brow bone, and the underside of the raised arm. Collins has drawn this figure, in terms of blocks, just as in the Poussin image (see page 230). He has developed his blocks by subtly modeling the areas in the light. Notice that the highlights are limited to the side of the face, the forehead, chest, and upper torso of this drawing. This figure drawing by William Bailey shows a very gentle...

The Aim Of This Book

First of all, Chapter 1 will show you how to draw figures, in fully realised 3-D. Chapter 2 will focus on how to draw bodies. It will show how the muscle structure of the body can be rendered, and will enable you to draw human bodies which look quite natural. Chapter 3 will teach you how to draw character. It will enable you to bring out character closer to how professionals doit.

The Portrait

How Draw Basic Shapes With Shadows

Many individuals are fascinated by the multitude of faces that they see and are compelled to draw them. However, beginners often find it too difficult a subject for them to tackle based on their skill level. In this chapter, we will attempt to demystify portrait drawing by conveying some basic principles that will help the student draw more three-dimensional, solid, and sensitive portraits. Gallery Portrait Drawings . 218 In many portrait drawings, a common occurrence that compromises the form of the work is overmodeling. Overmodeling occurs when you complicate the value of different tones in the shadow area, or in an area that is lit. You will not only lose the quality of the surface that you are rendering, but you will also lose the sense of three dimensions consequently, the form of the head will appear flat. Very often, a student becomes fascinated with the range of tones within the shadow, or in the light, and overstates, or complicates them. This drawing shows that the shadow,...

Nava Sacram In Human

Picture Woman Urethra

Try filling your sketchbook with manikin figures drawn from your imagination and from reference. Figure Artist can be a valuable tool because you can set up the figure in a number of poses and create sketches of it. Try sketching the same pose from different angles. A big advantage that Figure Artist has over photographs for figure reference is that you can set up a figure and then look at it from any angle. The manikin is a very useful tool for the figure artist. With it, you can quickly (and in most cases, accurately) sketch and build up ideas for your drawings. Working with a manikin helps you draw better from reference because it builds confidence in figure drawing. One of the reasons why beginning figure artists experience problems sketching the figure is that they are afraid that they will draw something wrong. By learning how to draw the manikin, the artist can overcome that fear and focus instead on learning to draw the figure well. Understanding human anatomy will help you...

On The Imagination

When you have had some experience in drawing the human figure from life and have assimilated the basic information about the body's structure and operation, the prospect of creating imaginative figure drawings without a model becomes far less daunting. A great amount of information about human anatomy and movement is learned in the process of drawing the posed studio model and from sketching people as they go about their daily lives, but this is not the sole purpose of such exercises. Knowledge gained in this way is absorbed at an intuitive level, and as such contributes to the stock of experience available to feed your imagination and give scope to the expressive possibilities of your work. The human form is so subtle, its range of movement so wide and its expressiveness so profound that no artist can claim to have explored all its vast potential. Drawing from life keeps your mind open and liberates your imagination. If your work is to remain honest and alive and free from slick...

Adding Clothing

Not all figure drawing is of nude figures. In fact, artists have to deal with clothed figures more often than with nude ones. The clothing for the models in Figure Artist is similar to the props in that there is not an endless set, but there is enough to represent a good array of options for clothed figures. The real benefit of clothing simulation in Figure Artist is that you can pose your figure, save the file, and then add the clothing and save the file again. You then have a good view of the underlying structure of the body and another of the overlaying cloth. For example, Figure 8.16 shows a scene with two figures in a dancing pose.

Joshua Nava Porn

Figure drawings are held to the highest standards. Because the body is very familiar to us we each have one of our own we generally know a lot about it. We admire its beauty and we recognize its flaws. Physical perfection is sought by many, giving rise to such industries as cosmetics, plastic surgery, and a plethora of diet programs. This basic familiarity can often become the bane of the figure artist because his artwork is judged by a higher standard than almost any other art form. Any artist desiring to learn how to draw the figure needs all the help he can get. Fortunately, in addition to books and other forms of instruction, a new way to help artists with their figurative work is becoming available through technology. This new technology gives the artist access to virtual figure models to use as references for figure drawing. Figure Artist, a new software program, now brings the power of virtual models to everyone with access to a computer. Figure 1.1 shows a screen shot of...

Arch In Perspective

Estimate the place of l, for example, in its square with quite sufficient accuracy by noting that on the plan (Fig. 31) l is half, or a third, or a quarter of the way across its square, and by placing it similarly in the corresponding perspective square in Fig. 30. The distance of l into the picture, and into its square, is estimated in the same way (though this time the chance of error will be theoretically a little greater, it still may be neglected for our purposes). A little reflection will show us that, in Fig. 30, bd is the perspective length of ac at the distance ab or cd (Fig. 3 1) into the picture from the ground line. Consequently, if we wish to erect a perpendicular at that distance into the picture, a perpendicular which shall be equal in height to the length ac, we shall only have to draw an upright equal in length to bd. Or, if we prefer it, we can construct a scale of heights by marking out equal distances up the side of the picture from y (Fig. 30) and joining each...

OThe Forearm

An aristocratic appanage when practised by the greater number, it becomes bourgeois, loses distinction, and, so, dominating- magnificence. At least this would seem to be true of such countries as those of Europe, where art is a thing more apart from life than it is, for example, in Japan. I had chosen some reproductions of child-form for inclusion in these pages but on second thoughts I will refer my readers to the works of those who have preceded me in writing on figure-drawing. Who does not realize that the head of an infant is proportionally larger, with reference to the body, than it is in the adult Who does not realize that the cranium of a newly-born child is proportionally much greater, in relation to the face, than it is in the grown man Who, again, does not know that an infant's limbs are simpler in surface form than those of a trained athlete Similar remarks may be made to an indefinite extent and, when printed, only serve to encumber the pages of the book. Such observations...

Mangwa Drawings

Perhaps more use can accrue to the European student from the study of such whole-figure drawings as are reproduced also from the Mangwa in Fig. 108. The top middle figure is very instructive. The twisted volume of the trunk is an example of solid draughtsmanship quite rare among Japanese works, which with the exception of a few masterpieces are generally lacking in solid conception. The different volumes of this wrestler's trunk are most clearly inserted one into the other, one feels intensely how the thorax comes out from within the shoulder mass, and in turn, after becoming the abdominal mass, fits down into the forms of the pelvis. The back and sides of the leg are, too, well marked in this figure.


Gesture Drawing Models

There will be times when the figure artist, like the actor, will wish to use gesture to show specific moods and emotions or convey a message. Posture and hand motions, as well as facial expression, are among the repertoire of signals by which we both understand other people and make ourselves understood. This is good advice for the figure artist, too. Melodramatic, overemphasized expressions of emotion look silly to the modern eye, and gestures are better played down than exaggerated. Such emotional content as a picture may be required to have can be emphasized in other, more subtle ways we shall examine these in Chapter 7. But, of course, gesture does play an important role in human social intercourse. Modem studies in nonverbal communication and unconscious gesture have produced valuable observations in this area, and they provide a rich source for the figure artist. Anthropologists in this field have coined the term 'body language'

Table Of Contents

Figure-drawing best method of study. Ruskin. Equilibrium. Choice. Integrality. Finish. Knowledge and intuition. Pseudo-science. Cezanne. Influence of Far East. The Tao. Si Ho's Six Laws. Want of figure-work among Celts and Germans. Greek art.

What Pose

When faced with a white sheet of paper that is supposed to become a figure drawing, one of the first questions an artist must answer is what pose the figure should be in. This is true whether the drawing is a commissioned portrait or a simple figure study. Using Figure Artist as a tool, the artist has the ability to explore a number of visual options in detail before embarking on the task of creating the drawing. Using Figure Artist, you can explore creative possibilities for posing the figures in your drawings to help give you the information you need to create beautiful works of art without the expense of hiring a model. If you need a model for your work, Figure Artist can help you work out the lighting and poses prior to your model session so there is much less wasted time and less chance of not getting the best pose for your art. One of the great advantages of a software program such as Figure Artist is that it has almost unlimited possibilities for setting up figures as reference...

Related Work

Because of demands for rapid feedback and the limitations of present-day technology, human figures are often represented with stick figures, curves, or simple geometric primitives. This approach sacrifices realism of representation for display efficiency. Recently, a layered approach to the representation of human figures has been adopted 2 20 23 28 in which skeletons support one or more layers, typically muscle, fatty tissue, skin, and clothing layers. The additional layers serve to flesh-out the skeleton and to enhance the realism of the representation.


Portrait drawing is frequently the type of drawing that people would most like to be able to do, so that they can make reasonable likenesses of their friends and relatives. The first important thing is to understand the structure of the head. Without attention to its general shape, you will not be able to make a very convincing portrait, or even a caricature. When people start drawing the human head there is a tendency to concentrate on the face of the sitter, and it is often drawn larger in scale than the overall size of the head. This is natural enough, but something you will have to correct for the future.


When drawing the head it is necessary to make sure that the proportions, i.e. the relative dimensions between its various constituent elements (eyes, ears, nose, mouth - which we will examine one by one later on) are indicated correctly and precisely. Of course, heads vary greatly in size and in the combination of characteristics, but they can all be reduced to a proportional diagram which helps to simplify the shapes, to recognise their peculiar three-dimensional aspect, and also to position details correctly in relation to one another. When drawing a portrait pay close attention to the overall structure of the head and evaluate its main characteristics as it is mainly from these that a good likeness depends. Details alone, even if minutely reproduced, almost invariably result in a vague and unsatisfactory portrait, when placed in a general context which lacks accuracy.

Designing Light

With the help of Figure Artist, you will have the opportunity to design the lighting of your figure drawings. Even if all you are doing is exploring lighting for a live model, you can experiment within Figure Artist to find lighting effects that you can later use in your work. Lighting the figure is a core issue with figure drawing that is often just quickly passed over so the artist can start drawing. Without light there could be no figure drawing because the room would be too dark and you would not be able to see the figure or your paper. It makes sense that if light controls how we see the figure, controlling the light will help to make our figure drawings more interesting and visually appealing. The more you learn about light and how it works with the figure, the greater creative power you will have over your drawings.

Lighting the Figure

Without light there is no sight, at least not with our natural eyes. Because figure drawing begins with seeing, a book about figure drawing should have some significant information on the nature of light and how our eyes perceive it. Understanding how light works on objects in a scene helps the artist create a feeling of depth and substance in a drawing. In Figure 7.1 the lighting on the dress indicates that it is a dark satin material. In a studio situation the artist can change the lighting of the figure by moving the light sources or by opening and closing window coverings. Too often the artist does not take enough time to make sure the lighting of the figure is exactly right. When using a virtual model, such as in Figure Artist, lighting becomes even more critical because all lighting in the scene is staged in the program. Not only does the artist need to understand how to move lights, he also must understand how to simulate actual lighting effects...

Structural Ensemble

I have several times put forward what may seem to many to be naught but an amusing paradox, to be a passing opinion, of the possible verity of which I should find it difficult to give a demonstration. I have said that not only is nude-drawing the best school for all kinds of drawing and design, but I have specially stated that, if I had my way, I would oblige all architects to study the nude profoundly for many years. In Relation in Art I have condemned in too summary a way English architecture to a secondary standing had it not been that I was writing in English for an English public I should no more have mentioned English architecture (considering the space that I could devote to the subject) than I should have mentioned Norwegian, or Russian. I should not even have spoken of it as little as I have of Byzantine or of Indian in its different forms. The present book is again written in English for English readers. This time I will put forward more clearly the weakness both of English...

Balance and Weight

For a figure to look right in its surroundings, it needs to have balance and look like it has weight. One of the problems with posing a figure in a virtual setting, whether it is with a software program such as Figure Artist or with a wooden mannequin, is the fact that it is easy to pose a figure that looks slightly odd or out of place. There could be a number of reasons for this, but the most common one is that the figure may not look like it fits in the setting. The perspective could be off. The lighting might be


In commercial art the purposes are almost always well-defined. The purpose is part of the assignment the artist is given. Sell this car. Convey this thought. Draw this building. Express this feeling. Draw attention to this product. All of these things are challenges for the commercial artist, and many of them are accomplished by the use of figure drawing. The architect uses people in his pictures to represent scale. The illustrator might use people in her pictures to depict a story or sell an idea. The designer might show a person using his product. The animator might have people as the characters in her show.

Shading a Figure

All the artist needs to do is determine where the light source is and how the light is falling on the figure. The figure is first broken into a light side and a dark side. From there, the artist defines the different aspects of lighting and shades the drawing accordingly. Follow along with this exercise to see one way of shading your figure drawings. To get a good feeling of form and solidity in a figure drawing, the artist must shade the drawing so that the light is clearly defined. A common mistake of the beginner is to have areas in the shadow that are too light and areas in the light that are too dark. When this happens, the drawing will suffer because it will be confusing to the viewer. The light side of the drawings should always be lighter than the shadow side.

Mental Work

Wherever you are, at whatever moment, observe, mentally simplify the values before you, choose a compositional arrangement of them, act, in short, as if you were really going to paint a picture. Decide just how much lighter or darker that tone is than the other decide which slightly different tones you will group together in order to simplify the yalues to three or four. A little of this reasoned mental work is worth far more than the making of many thoughtless paintings. While talking to any one, at the same time observe the constructional facts of his hand lying on the table, mentally note any pictorial quality that may occur in his pose. Better is it to make thoughtful observations than to have an eternal sketch-book in hand. Better still, though, it is to make the thoughtful observations and, having made them, to note them down, perhaps as a sketch, now and again, as did Turner, in the guise of mere verbal memoranda of things which have struck you. Figure-drawing needs...


The four corners of the paper create dynamic interest and lead the eye away from the sheet. This situation should be corrected by reshaping the sheet with stoppers (Figure a), such as trees, bushes, rocks, human figures, or a corner of a building (Figure b). Their job is to form an edge perpendicular to the diagonal in order to prevent the eye from moving away from the point of interest. They also function as the foreground subject and should be rendered with bold and heavy strokes. Stoppers should always establish a strong tonal contrast with the rest of the picture. The position and type of stopper used should be studied carefully on thumbnail sketches (Figure c).

Adjusting Shadows

The default lighting is nice, but for this figure there are some problems. Notice that the cast shadows are very dark, obscuring parts of the figure. Figure Artist allows you to adjust the darkness of the shadows from each light. In Figure 7.21 I lightened the cast shadows on the figure. Notice how the lighting is a lot more pleasant.

The Picture Plane

Whether you are drawing with a pencil on a piece of paper or using a digitizing pad and stylus on a computer to create your figure drawing, you are working in what is called a two-dimensional medium. In other words, the drawing sits on a flat surface. This flat surface is called the picture plane. Another way to think of it is that if you were to frame your drawing, the area inside the frame and mat would be the picture plane.


IN the opening pages of this book I stated that the best school for every kind of drawing is the nude. Manifestly one could write a whole volume on the special branch of landscape-drawing. Matter is by no means wanting. Comparisons can be instituted between the multiple technical modifications pages may be filled by describing the differences of form between elm and beech, granite and sandstone ' recipes 5 can be and generally are given for ' doing * trees, water, and so on. Needless to say I eschew all these last. Detailed treatment of rock, tree, and plant construction, of cloud and of river, of the restless sea must, for the moment, be left aside. The history of landscape-painting is not my present aim, and besides, the separation of landscape-drawing from figure-drawing is a seductive but quite false classificatory distinction. At any period the methods of treating landscape and figure are necessarily analogous one to the other. The really great landscapists have dealt with the...

Ending Note

Exploring dynamic poses for figure reference can be a freeing experience for the artist who has only had sedate figures from which to draw. When you think of all the possibilities available through a tool such as Figure Artist, you will quickly notice that many of the limitations of live models are eliminated or reduced. Figure Artist is not and should not be a replacement for studying the live figure, but it is a great tool for an artist to use in planning, developing, and creating figurative art. It is a tool that can expand the artist's vision and increase the artist's knowledge of the figure. Used properly, Figure Artist can become a valuable ally in the struggle to understand one of the most complex and difficult subjects in art, the human figure. This book is just the launching pad for all of the creative development possible using a virtual model for drawing reference. I, for one, look forward to the impact that a tool such as Figure Artist will have on figurative art in the...