A man landing and jumping contacts the ground for six to eight frames.

Charted on the exposure sheet. it looks like this:

Pluto SniffingDisney Animation Exposure Sheet

The exposure sheet with the action notes for the run. the jump. and the splash.

Spacing Chart Animation

The animator makes a chart showing where the pup's head will he on each of the drawings in the run and jump.

When Pluto was sniffing, his nose hit the extreme up ami down positions on every other frame.

0« //ie* exposure sheet, the chart looked like this:

The exposure sheet with the action notes for the run. the jump. and the splash.

beats, 24 frames, being the best. This was charted on the exposure sheet, with the 8 frames blank at the start, going 16 frames for the splash, and another 8 frames at the end to see the picture of the fox drenched, but laughing. The whole scene came to 4 feci 8 frames, or 3 seconds.

The layout was checked to see if there was enough room for the pup to run for 16 frames from the field border to the edge of the water; then drawings were made of the size of the dog and his attitude throughout the action. All that remained was to determine the spacing, how far he would move on each drawing. and this was a simple matter of taking the distance from the first drawing to the spot where he jumped, and dividing it into

16 equal spaces, liach of these became the position of the pup's head as he progressed on his run. To keep this run lively, an 8 frame gallop was chosen, which gave the pup a happy, bouncing movement as he entered. With confidence in the timing and the path of action, all of the animator's energies could now be concentrated on making drawings of a playful pup in a mischievous mood.

When the procedure is written down step by step this way. it seems like an involved and tedious process, but actually it takes only a matter of minutes. The big advantage is that it gives the animator a chance to think about his scene, play with the ideas, and turn it all over in his mind before he is committed to a specific action. The steps that sound so mechanical in writing will all stimulate his imagination, and increase both the fun of doing the scene and the probability that it will comeout on the screen just the way he has visualized it.

A closer shot of the action of the fox and hound playing in the water. With no solid surface beneath their feet, perspective becomes important as the only means of establishing the level of the water. A grid is drawn to remind the animator of the drawing restrictions as he bobs the characters up and down to give the feeling of being in water. The timing of the actions, which are matched to this perspective, is the only way of achieving this illusion.

The animator makes a chart showing where the pup's head will he on each of the drawings in the run and jump.

Little Pigs Drawing Disney


Working to music in an established tempo.

Sccnc description: First little pig runs into his straw house, slams door. Welcome mat is in front of door. He opens door, pulls in mat, slams door again.

Tempo: two 14s, or 7 frames per beat.

Footage: 6 feet 10 frames.

First, we determine the main accents we want to catch in the action. They are:

1. Going through the door.

2. Slamming the door.

3. Opening the door.

4. Pulling the mat in.

5. Slamming the door again. Second, we study the exposure sheet and the lay out and consider the big elements of the scene. Setting the metronome on a 14 beat, we try to visualize the type of action that will be best for this situation. We want to see the pig struggle excitedly and skid on the corner as he attempts to reach the door. (This gives the audience a chance to share his emotions, and the musician an opportunity to support the action.) The best accent musically for him to dash into the house would be on Measure 155, with the door slam coming 7 frames later on the upbeat.

The next big accent, for the opening of the door, comes on Measure 156, just 21 frames after the door slam. The door must be closed long enough to get the picture of the house with the welcome mat at the doorstep, but not so long that the tempo is spoiled. As the door is opened, the pig anticipates for a meager 7 frames, dives for the mat, and grabs it on the next beat, then pulls it in very fast. The ensuing door slam could come on the downbeat of Measure 157. Acting all of this out to the ticks of the metronome shows that this pattern is possible. It is fast, but allows time to see everything—the excited face, the reach, and the grabbing of the mat—and still leaves a picture for 8 frames before the cut. Adding sketches of the positions of the little pig throughout the action helps to prove out the planning. The action will be brisk, but when it is charted on the exposure sheet it is all clear and looks interesting. It is time to start animating.

The whole section of Snow White that showed the heroine lying on her bier while her friends mourned was planned to a prescored organ track that set the length and the mood of anything that would be done visually. No one came out of the theater whistling that song, but it was a great piece of music and did more to choke up the spectators than is generally realized. The number of scenes was carefully planned as well as their content, so that there would be no busy scenes, no fast moves, nothing that would contradict the feeling in the music.

The animator had to play this track over and over to maintain the right feeling in his drawings and his actions.5 It was necessary that he saturate himself with this spirit to capture a similar mood in the animation. Unfortunately, next door. Fred Spencer was trying to animate as much life and vitality as he could into the dwarfs as they sang and danced for Snow White in the Entertainment Sequence. As the dreary organ tones of the mourning section seeped through the walls. Fred turned up the volume on his record of the yodeling and singing. This quickly enlivened the funeral next door, destroying hours of getting into just the right mood. There was pounding on the wall from both sides and fierce shouts of, "Cut out that sad stuff!" answered by "Stop that dancing in there!!"

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